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[Table] I'm Jeff Galak, Professor of Marketing & Social and Decision Science at Carnegie Mellon University. I have published dozens of academic papers on decision making, consumer behavior, and more. I have also recently launched a new YouTube channel called Data Demystified. AMA! (pt 1/3)

2020.10.24 01:59 500scnds [Table] I'm Jeff Galak, Professor of Marketing & Social and Decision Science at Carnegie Mellon University. I have published dozens of academic papers on decision making, consumer behavior, and more. I have also recently launched a new YouTube channel called Data Demystified. AMA! (pt 1/3)

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Hey Jeff! I'm a minimalist & find that I'm happier with less stuff & when I give/receive experiences rather than items. Do you find consumer happiness reflects this shift towards minimalism since that is a (small, but seemingly growing) trend, especially among Millennials? Great question! There is some relatively new research looking at happiness from experiences vs. material possessions. Most of it shows that happiness from equally valued (e.g. price) experiences is higher than for possessions. HOWEVER, and this is a big however, all that work tends to ignore long run happiness with highly prized possessions. For instance, if you have a sentimentally valued object, happiness that stems from that object lasts for a long time. What most possessions don't do is provide long lasting happiness. You buy a new shiny toy and it DOES make you happy...but that happiness goes away quickly. My collaborators and I have termed this idea "Hedonic Decline."
So as for minimalism, there is not evidence that I know of that shows that less possessions make you happier. There's plenty showing that more possessions don't make you happier, but that's not the same thing.
One more layer of complexity: there are two routes to happiness: hedonic and eudaimonic. The former is what we usually think of when we think of happiness: how much joy does XYZ bring me. The latter, however, is closer to self-actualization. It's the happiness the comes from a accomplishing something....even if there was pain involved in getting there. I wonder if minimalism can increase eudaimonic happiness.
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That's interesting. Thank you for responding. In the minimalism community, self-actualization is reflected in endeavors such as achieving certain goals (like, paying off debt) that usually involves some amount of self-discipline &/or self-sacrifice. I'd say that the vast majority of research in happiness excludes eudaimonic happiness, largely because it's so hard to measure. My personal, non-data supported, take is that eudaimonic happiness is far more important than hedonic happiness. The latter is fleeting, whereas the former can be life changing.
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Beautifully said. Thank you.
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How does depression affect eudaimonic happiness compared to hedonic happiness? Great question and I don't know the answer. Social Psychology typical studies what we very poorly term "normal" psychology, which excludes clinical conditions like depression. Sorry!
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What’s your take on “pay to play” - as in, some “hedonic” purchases at are required to signal you’re in the game, making progress on eudaimonic happiness. When you get older and into your career, I’d venture many people have already figured out that hedonic happiness doesn’t do squat long-term, but there’s a balance in terms of how much hedonic happiness to have to acquire for the ultimate long-term eudaimonic happiness. Example: in sales, which I’m in tech analytics sales, companies want to spend for solutions to business problems, but they also want to see, visually, that the person they’re paying is a good representative for them. High cost equals a person that can represent that taste. Nice. Tailored suits, a nice watch and latest tech gadgets. There’s a pay to play aspect that signals to the world who I am, and that in turn actually allows me to get what I want- student loans paid off and early retirement.. I don't think there's any conflict here. If you will find some form of life satisfaction by succeeding in your career, there's no harm in also purchasing items that help you reach that goal. Those items can, in and of themselves, make you happy...nothing wrong with that. More to the point, hedonic and eudaimonic happiness don't have to be in opposition. You can have both!
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I really like this response. While i can jive with basic premise of experiences over possessions...i’m find it used a lot by people who actually just want to shirk obligation. I run HHiring and there is a persistent trend of people not wanting to act like their job is important..just because it’s easier to justify bailing on work/shifts to go do things when you can say you’re doing it for the experience, not focusing on the money you make at a job. I’m trying to figure out the best way to respond to people who think i’m some big bad money grubbing boss for wanting people to do their jobs. Meanwhile, in my personal life...i feel like i’m getting a lot of push back socially from people who think i should only work where i can just make my own schedule and dip put for an “experience” whenever. At the end of the say, it feels like people will just wax philosophic reasons for demanding leisure with all the material perks of having jobs and working. Great point. This relates to intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation. The former is the desire to do something because it's inherently interesting/rewarding. The latter is doing something for compensation. This is more in the realm of organizational behavior, and you'll have to wait for my wife who is also a professor, but of organizational behavior and theory, to do an AMA for more on that :)
Hello, thanks for doing this. Are you familiar with "loot boxes" in video games? I feel like the topics of a lot of your papers would fit right into why consumers/businesses use loot boxes. How does a loot box mechanic differ from gambling and should it be treated the same? (Regulation, age restriction, etc) If they are the same, how do you feel about video games including a loot box mechanic? Sticking with gambling parallels, what are your thoughts on video game companies targeting "whales" given that gamers can be any age nowadays? I'm not a gamer myself (though I do love TTPRGs and run a D&D 5e campaign), but I'm pretty familiar with loot boxes. Mobile games and social media platforms in general have become very good at continuous reinforcement. It can be the allure of getting a new outfit in a loot box or just an upvote on Reddit...the point is that we are wired to love small rewards, even if those rewards are meaningless. Casinos have mastered this art and loot boxes are an capitalizing of the same basic psychological mechanisms: need for positive reinforcements. So are loot boxes the same as gambling? Probably not the SAME, but damn close. As for regulation, I am strongly in favor of making gambling of all forms only accessible to adults and even then providing access to counseling for those who suffer from gambling addiction.
I have a lot less sympathy towards wealthy adults who choose to gamble as a form of entertainment. The problem is that it's not always obvious who's a whale and who's just pretending to be one for the attention. The latter is highly susceptible to financial ruin and I'd want them protected just the same as they are with standard gambling.
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Do you find the researcher in you observing and asking questions about the players' decision making processes in your D&D campaign? My old DM minored in psychology, and I often felt like a rat in his experiments. I enjoyed it, though. It kind of added an extra facet to the game. More than my research, teaching has made a huge difference in being a DM. When I lecture, I am forced to be quick on my feet to understand student questions, reply accordingly, and make sure that I'm moving the lecture along. That is the same with DMing. I need to be able to understand the motives of my players, respond appropriately with NPCs, and keep the story going.
I'm sure that my knowledge of psychology helps, but I wouldn't think it influences the way I DM (or play) that much.
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Studying business Psychology in Switzerland and leading the yawning portal atm, seems like I need to start teaching :p Ha! Check out this thread: https://www.reddit.com/WaterdeepDragonHeist/comments/fcc89a/the_yawning_portal_a_drinking_song_and_boss_music/
I used that for my game and it was great.
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Could I join your 5e campaign? Ha! Sorry, no. It's just close friends and we're months into it. I'm running Waterdeep, if you're curious.
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I'm applying to Carnegie's MBA for what it's worth! If I'm accepted, may I join then? ;-) How about you get in and then we discuss!
Hi Jeff! What is your favorite heuristic or logical fallacy when it comes to decision making? Can you teach us about one that people might not know about? Easy: Diversification Bias. That's where I started my career 15 years ago. I didn't discover this bias, but have built on it. Anyway, it's the idea that people choose more variety than they should. For example, if you are going to pick some snacks for the next few days, you might pick: chips, pretzels and an apple. Those are fine, but really chips are your favorite and you picked the other two because you thought you'd get tired of chips every day. Well, turns out you'd be wrong. A day is enough to reset satiation/hedonic-decline in most cases, so you'd be better off always picking your favorite option! Doing otherwise means eating snacks that are less preferred.
A new one that my doctoral student, Julian Givi, and I recently published: The Future Is Now (FIN) Heuristic. It's the idea that people believe that future events will be like present events, even when evidence points to the contrary. An example: if it's sunny today, you're more likely to think it'll be sunny tomorrow, even if the forecast clearly predict rain. What happens is you treat information about the present as having evidentiary value for future events, even when that's just not true.
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I really like that you give your student credit. PhD students do all the hard work. Professors just bask in the glory :)
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I think diversification bias is how I ended up with 5 shades of blue nail polish that are virtually undistinguishable from each other! Interesting to consider. Ha! Just might be...
Tell me about your paper "Sentimental value and gift giving: Givers’ fears of getting it wrong prevents them from getting it right". From what I read of the abstract, it seems that gift-givers undervalue sentimental value, seeing it as riskier. Why is that, and how can we give better gifts? Sure, this is a paper with my former doctoral student, Julian Givi. Basically, people are risk averse in gift giving when they shouldn't be. If I know you like coffee and I have a choice to give you some nice coffee beans or a framed photo of the two of us (presumably since we're friends), I give the former b/c it's a sure bet. But as the recipient, overwhelmingly, people prefer the latter. So givers should take the risk and give the sentimentally valuable gift over one that is more a sure bet.
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Interesting. When giving presents, givers focus too much on the recipient's known wants, which gets in the way of giving a meaningful present. Thank you! I'll be sure to keep that in-mind next Christmas. That's exactly it.
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I sometimes hesitate at this. I don’t want to come off as the selfie culture of all about me in pictures! But relatives do love getting pics of the kids for gifts. Still, how often is this perceived as a form of narcissism by the gift receiver? Edit: pictures of my kids not just me! One trick we do: every Christmas holiday we print full size calendars with our kids pictures on them. That's our holiday gift to all the grandparents. They LOVE it.
We also send small photo books to the grandparents throughout the year of some of the best pictures we take.
We have yet to send too many, but that's specific to our family.
The best advice I always have for something like this is: just ask! People are often worried about asking gift recipients about their preferences, but our research shows that a) recipients don't care about being asked and b) you can give better gifts that way.
Hi Jeff ! I have a question regarding involvement in a purchase, is there an increasing trend to become highly involved in the purchase of even low value object ? I find myself doing this during the pandemic doing comparison searches for a bulb which costs 10 dollars. Is this an exception ? Or is there some underlying psychological reason isolated to me ? Absolutely. Two reasons this could be happening. 1) With more free time, the threshold for what merits deep research drops a lot. 2) Many people are facing financial hardships, and so making sure every dollar is well spent becomes really important.
Hi Jeff, Thank you for the great AMA. Where do you see the future of insights departments in consumer companies? Most companies looks like giving up on ethnographic and in person research and focus on data analytics. I speculate management is under great pressure and in the meantime aspire to Google, Amazon etc. What is your take of insights departments future in large companies? Thank you! Exploratory research like ethnographies, interviews, and focus groups is really useful for brainstorming. But they are a poor substitute for quantitative data. Now, that doesn't mean "big data"...just data that has larger samples and is better representative of populations. Surveys are still amazing. When we want to forecast an election, we don't use big data, we conduct a political poll. They work.
But yes, right now, AI and machine learning are the hot new ideas on the block and everyone wants in on them. There is plenty of amazing applications of AI/ML, but what they can't do is tell you "why". As in, why did someone choose this option over that one? Or why are people motivated by this goal or that goal? Those types of answers allow you to apply knowledge in completely novel contexts. AI/ML needs to be trained on a specific type of data for a specific type of task. It is AMAZING at that. But as soon as you introduce a new context or new set of experiences, it fails. That's where good old fashioned surveys and behavioral experiments come in.
If a program was built to help us make better decisions, do you think we would use it? Do you think we can listen to a program’s advice better than we do from experts? We already do. Weather forecasts tell us how to dress. Facebook tells us what to think. Tinder tells us who to date. Etc... etc...
A program that EXPLICITLY tells you what to do won't work too well. People like to feel like they have free will. They don't, though. We are greatly influenced by our environment (not just technology) whether we know it or not. As one example: I can guess your weight reasonably well just by knowing your zip code (please don't make me actually do this as I'm not in the business of public shaming!). If we had true free will and agency, that should be impossible. Instead, we are the products of our environment.
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60641 Chicago? I believe Illinois has 30-35% obesity (I'm doing this quickly and not looking at your zip specifically), so pretty high weight.
Hi Jeff! Since I'm a 14 yrs old and knew nothing about what you study, I have very limited questions I can ask. But as I have observed, people are often sheepish and will consume as the trend goes. What is the most unexpected trend, worldwide? P.S. will defo check out your channel I don't expect most people to know my work (I like to think my ego isn't THAT big!), so no worries!
You're right. Trends will drive a lot of human behavior. We are social creatures and follow what others do much more than we care to admit. As for the most unexpected trend, that's really hard to say. Maybe this is too broad, but I'm surprised by how short people's attention span is when it comes to current events. News cycles used to last for weeks, now they last for hours. I suppose I know that people don't have long attention spans, but I'm still surprised.
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Any underlying reasoning for this? For the short attention spans? We can invoke evolutionary psychology, which I'm not a big fan of, and it would suggest something like a tensions between exploring and cultivating. So it would argue that our ancestors needed to have some reason to leave their immediate tribe to find new resources. So perhaps our attention spans are short b/c of this and the current environment exaggerates that behavior.
Have you done(or can you point to) any research relating to the decision making/not making around getting rid of possessions? I have a relative who keeps anything that has a perceived value as in could be sold on ebay/garage sale which they never sell. They are otherwise rational, clean, don't over consume..def not hoarder territory.. but I struggle to convince them that the old digital camera that's been sitting for 3 years could just be disposed of. Hoarding is definitely a thing. There isn't much in the study of item disposition in the empirical world of research (lots of interesting qualitative work that I'm less familiar with). The big exception to this is the Endowment Effect. The short version is that you value items you own more than if you don't own it. So a mug sitting on a store shelf is worth, say $10 to you, but as soon as you own it is worth, say, $20 to you. Nothing changed except your ownership of it. That explains some of hoarding behavior, but not all of it.
For a qualitative research paper on the topic, see here: https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mcb/216/2010/00000013/00000001/art00001
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I suppose I have the Endowment Effect. Everytime I find something valuable i dont have the will to let it go. Even though i can sell it and re buy it later, or buy something similar haha. It's like I want to take the most of it and use it til it brakes, go missing, or whatever. The endowment effect isn't infinite. As in, it's not that you won't be willing to sell your items for ANY price, it's just that your willingness to sell is higher than your willingness to buy.
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Hey Professor, appreciate the AMA. A couple of questions: 1) Just from my own thoughts banging around in my head and observations I've made during the pandemic, do you see the pause our society went through and the economic downturn effecting the psychology behind materialism? It seems the American "push for more no matter what" mind state took a eating and I think I'm seeing some consequences of that. 1) It's possible, but my pretty strong prediction is that within 1-2 years of the pandemic ending, we will be back to where we were beforehand in terms of materialism and general behavior. Extreme events like a pandemic seem like they are life changers. For some, that's true (e.g. someone loses a loved one), but for most it's not. We are inherently myopic and think that the thing in front of our noses is the only thing that exists.
2) I'm a current medical student and we get inundated with so many studies that it's overwhelming. Trying to practice evidence based medicine is really hard in an atmosphere that prioritizes publishing with little regard to quality. Do you ha e ways of navigating that I could apply to my day to day? Thanks again. 2) I can't speak to medical research, but that problem exists in all academic fields. The best thing to do is to let science happen. There will always be flashy new findings, but the ones that really matter will get replicated over and over again...and will get built on. The BS ones tend to just die out. That's not a full proof approach to vetting research, but it's better than just assuming everything you see published is true and/or important.
I am a former CMU student. How do you feel about CMU's decision to appoint Richard Grenell as a senior fellow? And how can we do something to fight against it because it seems they are not listening the current student body? Recently, the fence was vandalized against BLM (they wrote "all lives matter" over the previously written "black lives matter"). How are you working to build a more inclusive community at CMU and to fight for those who need it? How can former students help? I signed the petition to revoke his appointment and stand by that completely. I do understand why the university is upholding it, but I am embarrassed to have him associated with CMU.
As for the fence, the CMU Provost sent a really great letter immediately after it all happened condemning the vandalism and supporting BLM. Personally, I try VERY hard to do things like call on students of all races and genders and not let white men (of which I am one, btw) dominate conversations. I try to make sure that examples I use to highlight ideas include more than just typically white and/or male oriented products. I have been trained in Green Dot deescalation for sexual assault and violence. I am on the university academic disciplinary committee and have direct say over infractions like harassment or discrimination. And I sit on my college's Faculty Diversity Equity and Inclusion committee with the hope of including representation and inclusion of URM and female faculty. I care about this topic a LOT and do what I can...still probably not enough.
As for alums, if you see behavior at CMU that you think is antithetical to inclusiveness, let the administration know. Get your fellow alums to weigh in. The university wants your sweet sweet alumni donations. If you are all pissed off, they'll reply.
Hey Professor! I absolutely love to give. But I feel so awkward being thanked. And I dont really like receiving gifts. What would the psychology behind that be? Great question. It's hard to know without more detail, but I'd guess that some of that anxiety is about attention...as in, your lack of desire for it. As for not liking receiving gifts, maybe you have just not received that many good gifts? Again, it's really hard to say without knowing a bit more about you and the gift giving contexts you're involved in. If you want to share more, I can try to answer better, but totally understandable if you don't!
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Well, if I think more deeply....whenever I need something, I feel like it's up to me to make me happy. I usually don't really ask anyone else. Whether I need a massage, have a getaway, or get my dream dog, I just do it myself. As an aside, self-gifts are great! You get what you need, and nothing else. No issues there.
To your question, though, I do wonder if you just haven't receive that many great gifts. Yes, gifts can fall flat and the recipient might not love them, but when they hit, they not only provide the value from the gift itself (e.g. a great bottle of wine) but ALSO the sentimental value from the associations that the gift brings up (e.g. who gave it to you and under what circumstances...like for a birthday or graduation).
Hi Jeff, I have a job application at a place where they do conjoint analysis, something I have never done before. Got any tips? Do you have any thoughts on the technique in general? Personally as someone who takes surveys I find it very abstract (e.g. "Would you rather buy a $5 toaster with two slots vs. a $20 toaster that takes bagels?" I don't know!). First, good luck with the job application! Conjoint is a really useful tool when used correctly (like any tool, I suppose). The short version is that it lets you extract utility weights for different dimensions (e.g. price, product size, product speed, etc...) without directly asking people to answer questions about those dimensions. So instead of saying "how important is price to you?" you would come up with product profiles that have varying price (among other things) and then have people choose between those profiles. You can then extract, using nothing more than regression analysis (though, practically, no one does it that way...they use software like Sawtooth or SPSS Conjoint), how important those dimensions are for any given person.
the technique is tedious in that respondents have to make LOTS of pair-wise comparisons, but the end product can teach you a lot about what people actually value.
One key is to make the task as simple and realistic as possible. So the example you gave is confusing and wouldn't work too well. But I asked you to choose between a $20 toaster with 2 slots vs. a $30 toaster with 3 slots" that would work (in reality it would be more complex than that). You'd be forced to tell me if you prefer a cheaper toaster with fewer slots or a more expensive one with more slots. There's not right answer, but I would learn about those two dimensions for you. I'd need a lot more pair-wise tradeoffs to do this right, but that's the general idea.
Do you find that there are significant differences between particular groups? Does age influence gift giving habits more then sex, or some other factor? Just curious about the general trends of gift giving between groups. Super general question I know, so feel free to just call me out on it Definitely difference across genders as you would expect. More jewelry given by men to women. More gadgets given by women to men. Not so much in terms of age, though I've never really directly looked at that. The reality is that most gifts aren't that exciting. They tend to be things that are popular in a given year or old standbys like gift cards and ties. There certainly are amazing gifts and gift givers out there, but the vast majority of actual gifts given are pretty mundane. But that's not a bad thing if the recipient still likes what they get!
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Yeah, sounds about right. And yeah if everyone is chipper it's all good :) Is there a sort of gift quality vs quantity data? Like is it better to get more frequent smaller gifts or largemore expensive gifts less frequently? Smaller more frequent gifts every time. I have some new work on obligatory vs. non-obligatory gifts. Basically, you can make someone very happy by giving a small gift on a random Tuesday compared to a much nicer gift on their Birthday. More random-tuesday gifts every time!
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Thank you! :) will the results of that be on ur channel? Probably not. The channel isn't about my research, but rather about how to understand data more broadly. But the results will hopefully be published soon!
How extensive are the consumer psychology divisions in companies like apple? Lots of variation. Places like apple, google, amazon will have a lot of depth in terms of psychologist and consumer behavior researchers. But those are the gold standard. Most will rely on consultants to help out
How does education on finance and economics affect consumer behavior? Does knowing the way our brains make consumer decisions or how businesses try to get you to buy change how you shop? If you understand better how firms are trying to entice you to buy their products, you can absolutely counteract that better. For instance, $1.99 is really just $2...we all get that. But it turns out, having a 9-ending price really drives demand. That's nuts, but it does. IF you understand that, you stand a shot and not being duped by something so trivial. So educating yourself can be a big help. On finance and econ eduction, also really helpful, but in other ways. When you go to get a 30-year mortgage for your home, understanding how interest rates work, how inflation might affect home prices, how amortization tables work, etc... will help you make a much more informed decision about what is right for you.
hi! how do you predict consumer happiness/decision making etc during unprecedented times like this, when such a scenario may not have taken place before and you do not have much data to go on? also since the research you do and the data you collect are relevant to sales, do you see advertisements being affected by the pandemic in the long run from any changes in consumer mindset? It's really hard to predict much of anything right now. There are some basic behaviors and experiences that we can expect during a pandemic (e.g. increased anxiety, defaulting to familiar experiences, increased online shopping), but the reality is you're right...we just don't know. There's virtually no data on pandemic psychology/behavior, and all the pop-science stuff you read is just guessing at what will happen.
As for advertising, I think that once the pandemic is over, life will be back to what it was beforehand in almost every respect. People are amazing to adapting to changing circumstances. We are all doing that now with the pandemic and will all do that again when it's over. I don't think that advertising will be any different. Give it a year after we're all vaccinated (or whatever winds up being the solution) and most people will largely forget that we even had a pandemic. Yes, some will have big changes like lost loved ones or lost jobs, but for most people, life will return to what it was before Covid hit.
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thank you for answering, that is very interesting! the data you collect seems to be applicable to so many different fields. i asked about advertising as a student interested in media, but i can see it being useful in various types of companies be it internet security, food, travel etc. your job sounds really cool and i will definitely check out your YouTube channel :) Thanks!
Did you ever get to meet Herbert Simon? Wasn't he interested in similar things? I wish! I've been at CMU for 11 years. Simon passed away in 2001, so I missed him by a few years.
And yes, Simon was one of the original researchers into what's known as Bounded Rationality, it's the idea that humans don't act like computers and process all information simultaneously, but rather use heuristics and shortcuts to accomplish most tasks.
How influential was the work of Daniel Kahnemann to your current teaching? VERY! I don't know Danny personally, but my advisor got his PhD at Princeton when Danny was there, so lots of indirect influence that way. More generally, the field of decision making was build on his (and others) work, so hard not to be influenced.
Do you have any opinions on investors behavior during covid 19? More specifically how certain financial firms may have targeted people who have or would dabble in market that have recently lost work due to the pandemic? Caveat: I am not a finance professor. That said, my read is that fear of missing out (FOMO) is driving a lot of unexpected behaviors. The market has rallied like crazy since the March low and everyone wants in on that. It's hard to sit by and watch others make a killing while you don't.
As for practices like getting people who don't typically to invest to do so, there's two sides to this. On the one hand, getting more people involved with investing is a great thing. It used to be only that the very wealthy could invest and reap the benefits of the market, but now with places like Robinhood and fee-free trading on Schwab and the like, everyone can participate. On the other hand, MANY people don't understand risk well at all. They just see the possible upside and ignore the possibility of losing a lot (see that guy that committed suicide b/c of a terrible options trade...that's horrible). So firms and gov't have a responsibility to both educate investors and provide safeguards against uninformed behaviors.
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Hello, I just want to specify something in your comment! The young college student who committed suicide did so because a misprogrammed number on the trading site, Robinhood. Of course at the time he did not know it, but the value loss that was near $800,000, was showing the loss of the entire option, not his equity in the option, which was -$1,000 - -$2,000 if I remember right. It was Robinhood's terrible interface, not his misunderstanding of risk, which is horrible. If you would like a misunderstanding of risk on trading platforms, look no further than wallstreetbets, of course as you said FOMO is a huge factor, or if you're interested, some trading platforms intentionally advertise to consumers without properly representing risk. Thank you very much for this AMA, it has been quite insightful! Thanks so much for that clarification!
I have a question re: dating sites / apps. Is there a way to structure incentives so that the company is motivated to find good pairings between users? It feels like Tinder, Bumble, Hinge, etc. don't have such an incentive currently I think they do have an incentive to make good pairings. Word of mouth is their strongest asset so having good matches is key. The challenge is that good matches are hard to come by and not everyone agrees on what good is. Is good marriage? Is it a fun night? Not clear.
Hello Professor and thank you for taking this time. As a professional that works in marketing and a person who suffers from mental illnesses, it is often disheartening for me to see so much valuable research and findings be easily made available for use by companies for marketing and consumer exploitation while it is so difficult for those who are struggling to find information that could be beneficial to living their lives more freely. What are your thoughts on this, and do you think there are ways we could change the system to better benefit individuals needs directly? The connection between marketing academia, marketing industry, and consumers just sucks. No one outside of academia reads marketing academic journals. Few in academia care if their work has applications (even in an applied field like marketing). And consumers can't be bothered (rightfully) to read through academic work to learn.
Some solutions that I've seen that work: - Marketing Science Institute: this is an organization whose entire goal is link academia and practice. They have conferences where they invite folks from both sides to collaborate. More of this please! - Pop-science social science books like Freakonomics, Blink, Predictably Irrational, etc...: They all have plenty of shortcomings, but the authors all do an amazing job of conveying the ideas of academia to the public. I think that's fantastic. More of this too please! - Consulting for non-profits. I do this and many others do as well. We use our knowledge to help non-profits do their amazing work. This is a way to avoid that "exploitation" you mentioned and instead use what we know to help others. There's not much money in this kind of consulting, which is why few do it, but it's really important. Maybe some kind of granting agency could earmark money for non-profits to hire academic consultants to help them use what we know to help the world. That would be awesome
hey, I'm a recent advertisement graduate, it's good to see someone from such a familiar field here anyways, when I do groceries, I always follow the list to a T, and I take no time at all getting the items, basically, I go against every little trick supermarkets have to "seduce" the customer, so my question is: what makes someone a "good customer"? is it someone highly susceptible to the marketing tricks at the market or someone who spends both their money and time more efficiently? Good can mean different things here. You sound like you're probably super loyal to products. That's pretty great for most companies. The fact that you don't succumb to unintended purchases definitely makes you less attractive in one capacity, but your predictability makes you very attractive in other ways. If I could run a company where every customer always bought the same thing every week, I would LOVE that. I would know how to schedule raw material purchases, delivery schedules, etc... I would have a steady and dependable income. If, however, I relied just on getting lucky and catching the eye of customers as they passed my products on store shelves, that would be a whole lot more difficult a business plan to execute.
Hi Jeff, I have always geared my life towards maxing out the benefits and deducting the losses for example leaving my family in order to search for better life oportunities, ditching jobs where I felt safe in favor of new and more promising ones. And by this logic I have reached quIte far in my life. But at the end achieving all this goals don't yields the expected satisfaction. However I'm pretty sure that don't doing this would be even worse. Why does it seems that no matter if the desitions taken are the best at my point of view it still seems like I need more than the goals I have achieved. Why is disatisfaction the expected result? Wow, that's a lot to give up for goals! People are inherently likely to make what are known as upward comparisons. We don't look at the people who we have done better than, but instead focus on the few who done better than us. The classic example is Silver Olympic medalists. They should be elated, but instead they just covet the Gold medalist.
Beyond that, in your specific case, it's hard to say for sure, but we know that close relationships are the number one driver of life satisfaction. If you've given those all up in pursuit of some other goal, that might explain things a bit. Take that with a grain of salt as all I know about you is summed up in 100 words or so!
Hello Jeff, glad to see this AMA here! I'm a statistics student in Brazil (one of my professors got his doctorate degree at Carnegie Mellon University, in fact!). Much of what we learn nowadays is related to careers pertaining the finance fields. Other stuff includes academic research mixed with other fields. I see myself as a data analyst for a big bank someday, but I always think: is there any career for a data scientist thats underrated by modern standards but still awesome and rewarding, in your opinion? Go work for a non-profit! It's now where the money is, but many need help from data scientists. You can actually change the world that way!
Which US dollar bill is your favorite? Cash? You still use cash?
the below is a reply to the above
For coke yeah Oh, in that case.... Nope, not replying and losing my tenure :)
the below is a reply to the above
Prof, you have a bias. OP mean Coca Cola. I don't drink soda either :)
submitted by 500scnds to tabled [link] [comments]


2020.10.02 14:25 yodatsracist Let’s get a list together of all the Colleges and Universities with Early Action Deadlines *before* November 1st and Regular Decision or Priority Scholarship Deadlines *before* January 1st. I’ll start…

Please help me add to this. I got some of this information (especially the scholarships) from an old list so I don't know if it's still up to date. Please help me correct any errors. Please also add any schools I missed. I bet there are other annoying big state schools with December 1st Deadlines. I bet I've missed some priority scholarship deadlines. I bet I got most of the notable private schools, but if everyone can just check their local state colleges, that would be ideal.

I'm not worried schools with special deadlines after November 1st (for early) or January 1st because I feel as if most readers of this sub will have at least one application submitted by those dates (if applying Early). This is just a list to make sure you don't miss any deadlines.

EARLY

October 15th:

Oxford University (UK)
Cambridge University (UK) [note: you can only apply to either Oxford or Cambridge, using the British UCAS system, not the Common App; these aren't actually "Early"—this is their only deadline—but it made sense to put them here somehow, whatever, it’s before November 1st]
Coast Guard Academy
Georgia Tech (Georgia Residents only; non-Georgia Residents Nov. 2)
Stanford (if using the arts supplement only)
Texas A & M (Early Action; only an option for engineering applicants)
University of North Carolina—Chapel Hill (UNC) (Early Action)
University of South Carolina (Early Action)
University of Georgia (UGA) (both Georgia and non-Georgia)

October 31st

Berea College (Early Action)
Transylvania University (Early Action)
Please note that any school with an early date before November 1st is officially uppity, except for Oxford and Cambridge 'cause they're really just riding their own wave out there. But what the hell is up with these other schools? Who do they think they are?

REGULAR

November 1st

University of Florida (only some parts of the application; rolling after this, "on space-available basis")

November 15th:

University of Washington—Seattle (UDub)
What the hell. Seattle's cool, I mean, but it's not that cool. It's not California. I literally don't understand why they're so much earlier than everyone else. This school has lots of advantages students look for: it's in a major city, it's a public school so less expensive, it has a number of great programs including one of the top Computer Science programs in the country (think: where are Microsoft and Amazon headquartered?), etc., but a lot of students miss out every year on a great school because of their weird deadline.

November 30th:

All University of California campuses, including:

December 1st:

All Rutgers campuses,
New Brunswick, Newark, and Camden
Gonzaga (but "will take late applications until February 1st")
Stanford but only if you're doing an arts supplement.
Texas A&M (TAMU)—College Station
University of Southern California for film school applicants only
All University of Texas campuses (priority deadline), including UT Austin, UT Dallas, etc.
Again, I bet at least one or two other big state schools are in this category. Help me out.

December 4th:

California Polytechnic (Cal Poly)
All California State Campuses (CSU) (I’m not listing all 23 campuses)

December 15th

*University of San Diego (but accepts applications through February 1st for "Late Consideration")

SCHOLARSHIPS

Many schools offer consideration for scholarships for those who apply by a certain deadline. These can be either Priority Deadlines (you have a better chance of scholarships if you apply before) or Hard Deadlines (do or die deadlines where if you miss it, they won't consider you for merit). Priority Deadlines marked with a +, Hard Deadlines marked with a $.
These I actually just found on one long list from a few years ago so I haven't double checked to make sure the dates are still correct. I also I haven't filled in Priority or Hard but I'll try to go through and fill those in like next week or something. If someone wants to do that now, though, that'd be rad as hell tho.

October 15st:

University of North Carolina—Chapel Hill (Morehead-Cain Scholarship, in state; OOS October 1st)
University of Central Florida (I'd check other Florida schools as well)

November 1st:

Indiana University (IU)
Michigan State
North Carolina State University (NCSU) (Parks Scholarship; school endorsement should actually be done by October 15th)
Ohio State University—Columbus
Purdue
Texas Christian University (TCU)
University of Maryland—College Park
University of Georgia (UGA) (Foundation Fellowship—internationals and OOS can get this)
University of Texas—Austin (UT—Austin) (even earlier than the normal deadline)

November 15th :

Emory $
Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) (special COVID scholarship deadline)
Loyola University Maryland
The Ohio State University (OSU) (Maximus, Provost, and Trustees scholarships)
University of South Carolina
UNC and Duke's Robertson Scholarship

December 1st:

Boston University
Claremont McKenna
Clemson
College of Charleston
Creighton
Grinnell
Hampton
John Carroll University
Loyola University Chicago
Saint Louis University
Transylvania University
University of Connecticut—Storrs
University of Illinois—Chicago (UIC) +
University of Southern California (USC) $
University of Richmond
University of Rochester (including the IB scholarship)
Vanderbilt
Virginia Tech (Presidential Scholarship)
Washington & Lee

December 15th:

University of Alabama

December 20th

Duke (priority deadline for interviews)
&
Again, please help me add any schools I've missed!
Team work makes the dream work.
submitted by yodatsracist to ApplyingToCollege [link] [comments]


2020.09.08 19:01 StevenStevens43 Destroyed Temple of Thoth

Destroyed Temple of Thoth
Ethriel:
In Irish mythology, there was an Irish high king named Ethriel.
Ethriel is supposed to have reigned during the same period that Samson was the king of the tribes of Dan.
Ethriel
Ethriel, son of Íriel Fáid, according to medieval Irish legends and historical traditions, succeeded his father as High King of Ireland. During his reign he cleared six plains. He ruled for twenty years, until he was killed in the Battle of Rairiu by Conmáel in revenge for his father Éber Finn, who had been killed by Ethriel's grandfather Érimón. He was the last of the chieftains who arrived in the invasion of the sons of Míl) to rule Ireland. The Lebor Gabála Érenn says that during his reign Tautanes, king of Assyria, died (1182 BC according to Jerome's Chronicon)), as did Hector and Achilles (the Trojan War is usually dated to the 13th century BC), and Samson was king of the Tribe of Dan in ancient Israel.[1] Geoffrey Keating dates his reign from 1259 to 1239 BC,[2]
Link for photo
Samson fighting a Lion
Tribe of Danaan:
Ethriel himself, was from the tribe of Danann, as he was a Son of Mil, who was a king of Spain, and as we have covered in previous articles, Iberia was a Celtic stronghold during this period. (see Beaker culture).
Milesians)
In the Lebor Gabála Érenn, a medieval Irish Christian pseudo-history, the Milesians (Irish: gairthear Mílidh Easpáinne) are the final race to settle in Ireland. They represent the Irish people. The Milesians are Gaels who sail to Ireland from Iberia (Hispania) after spending hundreds of years travelling the earth. When they land in Ireland they contend with the Tuatha Dé Danann
Link for photo#/media/File:Mythsand_legends;_the_Celtic_race(1910)_(14760459036).jpg)
Sons of Mil
Tuatha de Dannan:
Now, the reason we know that Ethriel was from the tribe of Dannan, is because the Sons of Mil were the legendary Tuatha de Dannan, and the etymology of "Tuatha", means "People, tribe, nation".
Name
The Old Irish word tuath (plural tuatha) means "people, tribe, nation";
Superhuman:
Now the fact that many superhuman attributes get awarded to Tuatha de Dannan figures, perhaps makes the Tuatha de Dannan appear mythological.
However it is quite contemporary that during this period there was an Indo-Aryan empire known as the Hittite empire that was waging a serious assault on Egypt and it's surrounding vassal kingdoms, and those Hittites began to take on a super-human aura.
New kingdom
During the Hittite Empire period the kingship became hereditary and the king took on a "superhuman aura" and began to be referred to by the Hittite citizens as "My Sun". The kings of the Empire period began acting as a high priest for the whole kingdom—making an annual tour of the Hittite holy cities, conducting festivals and supervising the upkeep of the sanctuaries.[45]
King Thorri:
A good example of super-human legends comes from a Swedish mythological king named king Thorri from house of ynglings, who is supposed to be descended from Dan I.
About Thorri
King Thorri (Þorri 'frozen snow') was son of Snær ('Snow') the Old, a descendant of Fornjót ("king of Jotlandi (also spelled Gotlandi[2]), later known as Quennlandi and Finnlandi"). See Snær and Fornjót for further information. The name Þorri has long been connected with that of Þórr, the name of the Norse thunder god Thor, or thunder personified.[3]
A grandson of King Snow, and Frost before that, king Nór marries Hedda (Höddu) daughter of Svaða Jótun that may be seen as descending from the Scyldings, from the Kings of Lejre, the stronghold of the descendants of Dan) in Denmark.
Link for photo
Thor
Superman:
Another good example of self confessed supermen during this period, comes from Indo god of war, Subrahmanya.
Kartikeya (Sanskrit: कार्त्तिकेय, IAST: Kārttikeya), also known as Skanda, Kumara,[4], Murugan and Subrahmanya, is the Hindu god of war.[5]
Link for photo
Subrahmanya
Sea peoples:
Now during this period, several pharoahs, including Merneptah, carried out wars against a notorious naval group named the "sea peoples".
He described the sea peoples as "Northerners from all lands".
Campaigns
Merneptah had to carry out several military campaigns during his reign. In the fifth year of his rule, he fought against the Libyans, who— with the assistance of the Sea Peoples— were threatening Egypt from the west. Merneptah led a victorious six-hour battle against a combined Libyan and Sea People force at the city of Perire, probably located on the western edge of the Nile delta. His account of this campaign against the Sea Peoples and Libu is described in prose on a wall beside the sixth pylon at Karnak, which states:
[Beginning of the victory that his majesty achieved in the land of Libya] -I, Ekwesh, Teresh, Lukka, Sherden, Shekelesh, Northerners coming from all lands.
Link for photo
Merneptah
Merneptah:
Merneptah reigned 1213 and 1203 BC, so that would not quite put him within the 1259 to 1239 BC period given in Irish mythology for the reign of Samson.
Merneptah
Merneptah or Merenptah (reigned July or August 1213 BC – May 2, 1203 BC) was the fourth pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt.
Ramesses II:
The reign of Samson would have been during the reign of Remesses II:
Ramesses II
Ramesses II /ˈræməsiːz, ˈræmsiːz, ˈræmziːz/[5] (variously also spelt Rameses[6] or Ramses (Ancient Egyptian: rꜥ-ms-sw "Ra is the one who bore him" > Koinē Greek: Ῥαμέσσης, romanized: Rhaméssēs); c. 1303 BC – July or August 1213; reigned 1279–1213 BC[7]), also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt.
Link for photo.jpg)
Ramesses II
Battle against Sherden sea pirates:
Now the war between Egypt and the Hittite empire, was not a quick one, it carried on for hundreds of years, until the Hittites eventually collapsed the Egyptian dynasty, and therefore, Ramesses II was also called in to action against Sherden sea pirates.
Battle against sherden sea pirates
In his second year, Ramesses II decisively defeated the Sherden sea pirates who were wreaking havoc along Egypt's Mediterranean coast by attacking cargo-laden vessels travelling the sea routes to Egypt.[20] The Sherden people probably came from the coast of Ionia, from southwest Anatolia or perhaps, also from the island of Sardinia.[21][22][23] Ramesses posted troops and ships at strategic points along the coast and patiently allowed the pirates to attack their perceived prey before skillfully catching them by surprise in a sea battle and capturing them all in a single action.[24]
Sea peoples:
Now let us just stop a moment, to make sure we are under no elusions as to how notorious the Sea peoples were.
The Sea peoples are actually blamed for the late bronze age collapse, and likely led to the downfall of the native egyptian dynasty, more than the pitch battles conducted by the Hittite army.
Sea peoples
The Sea Peoples are a purported seafaring confederation that attacked ancient Egypt and other regions of the East Mediterranean prior to and during the Late Bronze Age collapse (1200–900 BCE).
Tribe of Dan:
Now what happened to the survivors of those defeats that got captured?
Well, the Egyptians en-rolled them in to the Egyptian army, in return for donating them lands in vassal kingdoms.
What happened to those that escaped? Well, would they not have just went home? Perhaps made their way back to Ireland, via their Iberian strong-hold?
Now, the best theory for who the tribe of Dan is, is that they were captured sea peoples from the tribe of Dannan. Or tribe of Denyan, as referred to by the Egyptians.
Amenope
The Onomasticon of Amenope, or Amenemipit (amen-em-apt), gives slight credence to the idea that the Ramesside kings settled the Sea Peoples in Canaan. Dated to about 1100 BCE, at the end of the 21st dynasty (which had numerous short-reigned pharaohs), this document simply lists names. After six place names, four of which were in Philistia, the scribe lists the Sherden (Line 268), the Tjeker (Line 269) and the Peleset (Line 270), who might be presumed to occupy those cities.[79] The Story of Wenamun on a papyrus of the same cache also places the Tjeker in Dor at that time. The fact that the Biblical maritime Tribe of Dan was initially located between the Philistines and the Tjekker, has prompted some to suggest that they may originally have been Denyen.
Tribe of Dan:
Now, typical of a sea fairing people, the Denyans ended up settling in a coastal part of Israel.
Tribe of Dan
The Tribe of Dan (Hebrew: דָּן‎), meaning, "Judge", was one of the tribes of Israel, according to the Torah. They were allocated a coastal portion of land when the people of Israel entered the Promised Land, later moving northwards.
Link for photo
Tribe of Dan
Lived on their boats:
Now, the Danites are believed to have actually not bothered settling on the Danite mainland of Israel, instead choosing to just live in their boats.
Assumably in the harbours.
Characteristics
Their primary trade characteristic was seafaring, unusual for the Israelite tribes.[19] In the Song of Deborah the tribe is said to have stayed on their ships with their belongings.[20
The Danites left port at the fall of the Hittite empire:
Now, when the Assyrian empire rose up and defeated the Hittite empire, the Danites took off in their boats and did not bother to hang around and Help Israel defend themselves against the Assyrians, and they were never seen again.
Assyrian conquest and demise
As part of the Kingdom of Israel), the territory of Dan was conquered by the Assyrians, and exiled; the manner of their exile led to their further history being lost.
Link for photo
Dan
Dan I:
Now, i think common sense alone would suggest, that the Denyan, likely returned to Northern regions, such as Ireland and Denmark.
You know, regions that had been under the kingship of Dan I, when they first got sent to the near to middle east to stop the charge of Thutmose III, who was leading the Egyptian native army northwards at a high speed.
Dan I
Dan I was the progenitor of the Danish royal house according to Saxo Grammaticus's Gesta Danorum. He supposedly held the lordship of Denmark along with his brother Angul), the father of the Angles in Angeln, which later formed the Anglo-Saxons in England.
Link for photo
Dan I
Samson:
Now this is not the end.
I now want to shift focus to Samson.
Conquest and territory
The most celebrated Danite was Samson, a Danaite judge from the period of settlement in the lands allotted by Joshua. Pnina Galpaz-Feller sees similarities between the story of Samson and Denyen tribal legends.[9]
Destroyed the temple of Dagon:
Now, Samson is attributed to have destroyed the temple of Dagon.
Samson
When the Philistines took Samson into their temple of Dagon, Samson asked to rest against one of the support pillars. After being granted permission, he prayed to God and miraculously recovered his strength, allowing him to bring down the columns, collapsing the temple and killing himself as well as all of the Philistines.
Link to photo
Pillars of Dagon
Temple of Dakka:
However, historically factually, the Temple of Dagon, was likely actually the temple of Dakka, in Nubia/Sudan/ancient egypt.
Temple of dakka
Ad-Dakka (Arab: الدكة, also el-Dakka, Egyptian: Pselqet, Greek: Pselchis) was a place in Lower Nubia. It is the site of the Greco-Roman Temple of Dakka, dedicated to Thoth, the god of wisdom in the ancient Egyptian pantheon.
Link for photo
Temple of Dakka
Temple of Thoth:
Now, in actual fact, it would not even be pertaining to the Temple of Dakka, as the temple of Dakka was only constructed in the 3rd BC, and was a reconstruction of earlier destroyed temples, in slightly different locations.
Now, dating back to the time of Ramesses II, there appears to be temple ruins from a location named Kubban, which is the earliest known temple of Dakka/Thoth.
Relocation
During the construction of the Aswan dam in the 1960s, the temple was dismantled and moved to the site of Wadi es-Sebua.[7] At the time of its removal, some reused stone blocks from Thutmose III, Seti I and Merneptah were discovered which originated from an earlier New Kingdom structure in or near Kubban.[2] The temple's pylon is now separated from the remainder of the temple due to the missing enclosure walls of the open court.
Link for photo
Nubia
Summary:
This would suggest, that the temple was likely destroyed by captured Denyan's fighting under Samson, for Ramesses II, during one of his Nubian campaigns, against the lower cataracts.
Campaigns in Nubia
Ramesses II also campaigned south of the first cataract of the Nile into Nubia. When Ramesses was about 22, two of his own sons, including Amun-her-khepeshef, accompanied him in at least one of those campaigns. By the time of Ramesses, Nubia had been a colony for 200 years, but its conquest was recalled in decoration from the temples Ramesses II built at Beit el-Wali[46] (which was the subject of epigraphic work by the Oriental Institute) during the Nubian salvage campaign of the 1960s),[47] Gerf Hussein and Kalabsha in northern Nubia. On the south wall of the Beit el-Wali temple, Ramesses II is depicted charging into battle against the Nubians in a war chariot, while his two young sons, Amun-her-khepsef and Khaemwaset, are shown behind him, also in war chariots. A wall in one of Ramesses's temples says he had to fight one battle with the Nubians without help from his soldiers.
Link for photo
Ramesses II in his War charriot
Summary:
Therefore, it is most likely that the Tuatha de Dannan, and Samson, were real historical figures, and Samson truly was a king that was involved in the destruction of a temple, but likely not in the location, nor environment, depicted in legends.
And Irish mythology, ties in perfectly with known contemporary history.
Though the story of Samson destroying the temple with his own super-human strength, is likely euhemerised from the true stroy of 408 BC olympic winner Polydamas of Skotoussa, who had quite literally won the title of hardest man in the world, after winning the pankratiast finals.
Pankratism was a sporting event were competitors fought eachother without rules.
So, unlike todays boxing events, pankratists were actually competing in real fights.
He apparently was killed whilst performing a heroic act of strength, when a roof caved in, and he held the roof up long enough for everyone else to escape, though he himself died.
Skotoussa is also thought to have killed a ferocious lion on mount Olympus with his bare hands.
Samson is also credited with this feat.
Therefore, superhuman acts achieved by Samson, are likely usurped from real stories connected with the Olympic gold medalist Skotoussa.

Polydamas of Skotoussa:
Polydamas of Skotoussa
Polydamas of Skotoussa (Greek: Πολυδάμας (gen.: -ντος) ὁ Σκοτουσσαῖος), son of Nicias, was a Thessalian pankratiast, and victor in the 93rd Olympiad (408 BC).
His size was said to be immense and the most marvellous stories are related of his strength (for example, how, without any weapons, he killed a huge lion on Mount Olympus, or how he stopped a chariot at full gallop). His reputation led Darius II of Persia to invite him to his court, where he performed similar feats.
In the end, Polydamas' strength could not prevent his demise. One summer, he and his friends were relaxing in a cave when the roof began to crumble down upon them. Believing his immense strength could prevent the cave-in, he held his hands up to the roof, trying to support it as the rocks crashed down around him. This gave enough time for his friends to flee the cave and reached safety, but Polydamas never got out and died.

submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]


2020.08.26 22:20 CindyMorrisonwatts1 {Discussion} Understanding the Templaric Witch Dark Sable; the Moth.

{Discussion} Understanding the Templaric Witch Dark Sable; the Moth.

Understanding the Templaric Witch Dark Sable; the Moth.

Multiple Identities
Dark Sable’s real name is Leonora Djuric, but she is known by many other legal names, including, Leonora Delgado and Leonora Contreras. She is also known to use the name Gloria Contreras and Sasha Sauvé. She is regarded as a beautiful art model of liberal feminist galleries and as an Alchemic Mind Witch.
Photo submitted by Aaron Klein_which Sable is Sable?.---(Legal Photo Disclaimer: The photos and art posted here are taken from the Internet Public Domain and Google Images. They are submitted by fans and strangers and are used solely for dramatization. They may not actually be the people, places, and things they are referred to. If there is a complaint regarding any permission of photos or art here, inbox me and I will promptly delete them.)
Birth Rites
She was born in Chicago in Mount Sinai hospital on November 5th in 1975, during a Solstice blood-moon. She shares the same birthday date as her 5 year-older brother, because her mother the infamous witch Phantasma Djuric recklessly induced her birth two weeks earlier to purposely fall on that date. This premature birth might also have added to her immature sexual formation.
Sable was born with a preplanned mission by her mother – this was to continue her feminist witchcraft and to mediate for her species, to bond and breed with her older brother (yes, she was born to become incestuous) and to rule and act as grand mediator to all of the Wikkani, Templar, Rosicrucian, Beldorian and Sylvan covens.
Photo submitted by Suzy Tamarind_art of Dark Sable by her brother Riddle.---(Legal Photo Disclaimer: The photos and art posted here are taken from the Internet Public Domain and Google Images. They are submitted by fans and strangers and are used solely for dramatization. They may not actually be the people, places, and things they are referred to. If there is a complaint regarding any permission of photos or art here, inbox me and I will promptly delete them.)
Amazingly, she seems to have achieved all of this with pride, fervor and excellence.
However as an Intersex NIO Orchid, she failed in being able to reproduce more of her kind, as she was unable to mother children, due to her being born with the genetic defect of having no functional sexual organs.
This however did not stop her in having a major role in raising all of her brother’s daughters, probably a major effort on her part to redeem herself in this one reproductive failure of her’s. She also helped raise a much younger and un-blood-related foster sister, Lisa Shedd, a distant cousin to Andligian Witch Liz Shedd to whom she still helps to this day.
Photo gif by Miziak INC__Dark Sable is considered a Templaric Witch and runs seven covens.
Adult Consensual incest and the reasoning behind it
In the freakish tradition and culture of the Wikkani High Circle, the ability to breed incestuously from time to time is highly revered and her inability to do so has been a major embarrassment and deficit in her cultural beliefs and values.
‘This had probably led to the control issues she has with her older brother,’ says Dr. Levy Brooks, a leading psychologists from Connecticut.
Brooks states; ‘Leonora has a compulsion to possess her brother as a husband and mate, this was also the case with her own mother and father, (Viridian Cruz and Phantasma Djuric) to whom married and produced three children. This is a very serious and quite despicable mental condition that all so called Hexanic sisters unfortunately harbor. Sable’s inability to produce children leads to a fear of disconnection with him, so in response, she manipulates him in ways that obligate and tie him to her. Like a cunning spider spinning a web, she constantly creates situations to keep her brother close and obligated to her. – or else!
This is of utmost importance in regards to Hexanic sisters, but is especially manifested in Leonora, who’s infertile condition compels her to possess him more. It is assumed by Brooks, that her deep love for her own brother if manipulated regularly, can make her feel ‘whole’ and redeem her of her status as an infertile Wikkani female, despite her inability to reproduce more Wikkani.
‘It is a sad and inhuman biological/psychological ailment. And quite frankly, people like this should be forced into study groups and institutions, where they can be helped and advised to steer away from their biological incest compulsions and milked of their specially evolved genes to help society and pharmaceutical companies in creating new drugs and therapies to treat deviant sexual disorders. This is their real value to society!’ Brooks explained.
Photo submitted by Aaron Klein_ Dark Sable is a nearly invisible presence in the occult world, but she holds great power over much of it in America..---(Legal Photo Disclaimer: The photos and art posted here are taken from the Internet Public Domain and Google Images. They are submitted by fans and strangers and are used solely for dramatization. They may not actually be the people, places, and things they are referred to. If there is a complaint regarding any permission of photos or art here, inbox me and I will promptly delete them.)
As a Polyglot
Sable has a ‘jumbled accent’, as psychologist Susan Stern claims. This is caused by Sable actually thinking in several different languages and thus the accent formed is jumbled, meaning she developed a unique accent derived from the several languages she commonly speaks. This is also a common condition for many polyglots. She can also hide her accent quite well, while switching her identity modes.
However despite not being Hispanic, Sable adopted a Mexican staple-identity and speaks and writes Spanish during most of her public outings. The reasoning behind this is because she was raised in Mexican Neighborhoods for much of her life, as well as being close to Mexican culture and people, to whom Sable has admitted as being her favorite culture.
Photo submitted by Aaron Klein_ Sable's father is Viridian Cruz, the same Templar explorer that died in Centralia, Pennsylvania's mysterious ghost-town..---(Legal Photo Disclaimer: The photos and art posted here are taken from the Internet Public Domain and Google Images. They are submitted by fans and strangers and are used solely for dramatization. They may not actually be the people, places, and things they are referred to. If there is a complaint regarding any permission of photos or art here, inbox me and I will promptly delete them.)
As a biological wonder
Dark Sable was born a ‘Neotenous Inter-sexed Orchid’, one out of just 92 people that have this bizarre condition on the planet.
What this means to the layman, is that she was born with both female and male genes, and has no real sexual organs externally.
In physicality, she looks like a Barbie doll when stripped of its clothing, no sexual organs can be seen from the outside. But as with all people with NIO, she does have remnants of sexual organs on the inside of her body, vestigial partial organs that can feel sexual pleasure and like all NIO Orchids, she can excrete a pink sexual fluid during climax, though no one is sure what this fluid is.
Photo submitted by Kelly Mitoulkus__ Sable has the dreaded ability to project Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Tourettes syndrome 'tics' temporarily into people's minds if she see's fit..---(Legal Photo Disclaimer: The photos and art posted here are taken from the Internet Public Domain and Google Images. They are submitted by fans and strangers and are used solely for dramatization. They may not actually be the people, places, and things they are referred to. If there is a complaint regarding any permission of photos or art here, inbox me and I will promptly delete them.)
In all NIO people, this sexual fluid appears to be a semen-like ejaculation similar to what is seen from normal males, but only in appearance as it is composed of an entirely different makeup. In the early 70’s, researchers kiddingly coined this semen-like fluid, ‘Cherry-Drop’, because of its very strong and distinct smell of chocolate-covered cherries.
This is not harmful at all, but doctors are still undetermined as to just what this pink sexual excretion actually is, but it seems to be the equivalent to a normal male ejaculation, but instead coming from a female and delivered from a simple slit that acts as her private parts. This is in accordance with all people, who have this extraordinarily rare NIO condition.
So unlike most inter-sexed people, who have a mix of both sexual organs, Sable has none at all.
She was born with no real womb, but instead has a primitive slit as a vagina, and what doctor’s refer to as a ‘Cloaca’.
I don’t know what a Cloaca is, but here is a definition from Wikipedia;
(in vertebrates, a common chamber and outlet into which the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts open. It is present in amphibians, reptiles, birds, elasmobranch fishes (such as sharks), and monotremes. A cloaca is not present in placental mammals or in most bony fishes.)
This seems to be an evolutionary ‘throwback’ condition, meaning it is a genetic defect that stops people from forming normal reproductive organs and is almost always a product of being born out of incest.
Although NIO (Neotenous Intersex Orchids} have no sexual organs externally, they do feel intense sexual pleasure when stimulated.
The major defect in the NIO condition is the reversion to prepubescent states. Because those who have NIO do not have sexual organs, they do not have the hormones to regulate their body into adult forms either.
This is why the condition is termed ‘Neotenous’. Neoteny is often found in lower life forms, such as amphibians and reptiles, like the famed Mexican Axolotl, a salamander that stays in its juvenile larval form, even into adulthood.

Photo submitted by Lilly MacBride_ Sable during a 'Dromedary Solstice' ritual in Wisconsin's Black forest..---(Legal Photo Disclaimer: The photos and art posted here are taken from the Internet Public Domain and Google Images. They are submitted by fans and strangers and are used solely for dramatization. They may not actually be the people, places, and things they are referred to. If there is a complaint regarding any permission of photos or art here, inbox me and I will promptly delete them.)
Dark Sable has a condition that is much like this and it can have some cruel social and psychological effects on human beings afflicted with it.
Unwillingly, Dark Sable has reverted form into prepubescence many times during her life. Without the ingestion of regular hormone therapy, her body will revert back into a child-like state.
In short, without her hormone pills, she will basically turn back into an androgynous sexless body form.
Photo submitted by Levalore86__ In a truly fascinating biological process, when Sable misses her hormone therapy, she can revert into a Neotenous state and becomes a genderless, childlike figure. Sable seen here in 1990 at 14 years of age after full-blown reversion and neoteny. .---(Legal Photo Disclaimer: The photos and art posted here are taken from the Internet Public Domain and Google Images. They are submitted by fans and strangers and are used solely for dramatization. They may not actually be the people, places, and things they are referred to. If there is a complaint regarding any permission of photos or art here, inbox me and I will promptly delete them.)
Because of this fear of reversion, Sable has had breast implants, so that if she falls into prepubescent remission, she will still retain the image of a female and not a genderless child.
This is also the reason why the 44 year-old woman-boy, looks as if she is in her twenties, the only real advantage of this freakish ailment. And of course she takes great advantage of this in her identity camouflaging as well, often having websites or pages that claim she is in her twenties, to which people easily believe, and no one disputes, due to this peculiar genetic abnormality.
The Master of Mirror Blurring
Dark Sable is a Templaric Witch and one of the most powerful of the ‘Clever-girl’ witches, being able to mask her identity several times over and in plain sight.
This amazing ability is done through a Wikkani identification-mixing skill called ‘mirror blurring’.
In combination with her ability to fluently speak 5 languages, including French, Spanish, English, Serbian and Romanian, she can adopt multiple identities with ease.
Sable is a virtual expert in physical makeup, digital photo-manipulations and body-morphing and uses all three tactics at the same time, to produce photos, videos and real-life images of herself to confuse the public.
This strategic mix of image altering elements is so refined and strong, that even when talking to her up-close and in broad daylight, she can camouflage the way her appearance is actually perceived.
According to Dr. Alyssa Lorn and David Sale, she is quite literally one of the best self-image illusionists on earth!
Although this may sound melodramatic, many others have agreed. Sable does this clever-girl trickery with ease, all the while stabilizing one particular look, and she does this for a very good reason.
Because Sable is the top matriarch of seven different covens, she is highly sought after, so the ability to change her appearance at will like a chameleon is a very advantageous talent.
Though not sought after for any harmful purposes, without her ability to ‘shape-shift’ she would be constantly hounded by various organizations that plead with her to participate in studies and experimentation, not an illogical notion, being as how Sable is such a unique biological wonder.
Sable, despite being able to change her appearance and perception, does adopt one very stable and iconic look.
This is her real life appearance – it is of a thin but curvy female with light skin and short hair, almost always in some sort of ‘Bob-haircut’.
The Bob-Haircut she is famous for is probably an ode to Cybil Carnate, a long dead Templar-Wikkani saint from the 1920’s, to which she bases much of her feminist and Latina activism on.
Dark Sable will sometimes dye her short hair blonde or shave her head bald or nearly bald for certain seasons, according to solstice moon schedules and Wikkani traditional rites.
Sable also uses makeup in ways unheard of before, such as the use of makeup to make her lips seem thinner, or make her eyes seem smaller when in camouflage mode, as Sable is mostly known for having naturally wide green eyes.
Photo submitted by Aaron Klein_ Sable owns a popular alternative thrift-shop on Chicago's north-side in Wicker Park..---(Legal Photo Disclaimer: The photos and art posted here are taken from the Internet Public Domain and Google Images. They are submitted by fans and strangers and are used solely for dramatization. They may not actually be the people, places, and things they are referred to. If there is a complaint regarding any permission of photos or art here, inbox me and I will promptly delete them.)
Raw power
Dark Sable has a multitude of talents and witchcraft tactics. Among these are skills three-fold, physical, psychological and paranormal.
Sable is a master of Talon Bleau, and as a devout Yoga instructor and jogger, she stays fit and healthy. This helped her boost a particularly bloody martial art called Talon Bleau, a fighting defense method that purposely uses freehand techniques to break open veins on the face and body of the opponent, causing the attacker to ‘bleed-out’.
Photo submitted by Lamgy455_ an art depiction of Sable as the Moth.
She also has the dreaded ability of OCD, Tourette’s and Remote Projection, being able to tap into the involuntary reflexes of people.
Sable is also said to have a skill no other Wikkani has called ‘prompting’, an ability of some sort to greatly magnify a person’s emotions.
Brother & sister union
Despite being his younger sister, Sable is the ‘cultic wife’ of her brother Dark Riddle. She was raised by him since she was twelve and had gone with him during most of his arduous training under Dark Ripper. Because of this, she learned much of what was being taught to her older brother, simply by being present during his teachings.
Photo submitted by Peter Tusan_ an art photo of Riddle and Sable in 1995. Courtesy of the Museum of Occult Lore Connecticut..---(Legal Photo Disclaimer: The photos and art posted here are taken from the Internet Public Domain and Google Images. They are submitted by fans and strangers and are used solely for dramatization. They may not actually be the people, places, and things they are referred to. If there is a complaint regarding any permission of photos or art here, inbox me and I will promptly delete them.)
In Riddle's normal life, he is partnered with Medical Organizer Belinda Cardenas, this union has been in excess of 10 years, far longer than Fiona Guzman, Leticia Barbados and Clair Reno, all 'normie' hosts to similar powerful Templars.
Belinda appears to occupy the role of wife during his mostly normal living conditions and acts as the sole 'host' to Riddle and also his access to the normal world and its respective communities.
Miraculously, Belinda even as a 'normie', has some authority over other women in his life, including his witch daughters and Sable to some degree, as she is in essence sharing the same man.
It would seem, according to Susan Stern And Brigitte Leachmen that Belinda is married to one personalty of Riddle, while Sable is married to the other personalty. (Dark Riddle being split into two distinct personalities, (as diagnosed by the IBOH).
She also contends both have strong control over his domestic life and psychological well being.
It is often asked why Sable doesn't just simply 'remove' Belinda from his life and take the role as primary wife. This has to do with Belinda being 'Neophodan' a serbio-Romanian term meaning indispensable.
Dr. Lebow believes Belinda is a 'Neophodont' clock-clog in the Wikkani culture, meaning a very rare normal person with 'untouchable' status.
This is probably because if anything happened to Belinda, it would expose Riddle to the legal social world and this would leave a major breach in Wikkani Templar secrecy.
This, among other domestic reasons, is why Dark Sable tolerates Belinda's role and share-status.
It is not known if the two get along or not. Or if they even speak to one another, but considering the longevity of their closely connected lives, it is unlikely that they do not speak. It would be more likely that the two have some sort of pact or agreement with one another.
Whatever the case, Sable must respect Belinda greatly to have allowed this situation to last for so long. Brooks even suggested slightly that the two may even have some attraction to one another, as Sable, like all Wikkani are also natural lesbians by nature.
Belinda is probably seen as a hybrid of cult-normie schismatics in their world and Sable is smart enough to understand and realize her importance to her and her enclave.
This is proven further by the fact that Belinda and Dark Riddle have been together for almost 16 years now! Had Belinda not been a respected Neophodont, this would never have occurred.
Social worker, Marian Defalco believes Belinda has stood with Riddle for such a long time probably due to his financial ties with wealthy organizations such as BP Oil, Monsanto GMO and the Macarthur Foundation to which he holds great sway.
As for Sable as a child, it was during this time that she must have seen Riddle as a father figure, since her host parents left her during her teen years. Somehow this father figure became an object of her affections and Sable eventually got a ‘cultic wife status’ through sheer persistence.
Obviously, they are exceptionally close and Sable does receive most of the wealth and properties awarded to him from various mediation missions.
In this way, she is treated much like a wife. It is also clear she is very important in his life, raising his children and handling nearly all of his business affairs.
Riddle also seems very amorous with her in behavior and this, along with Sable’s own admitted deep feelings for him, suggests the two are abnormally close.
Riddle also refers to her as ‘Good-sister’, which is a typical feminist greeting, but also in Romanian translates to ‘Sora Buna’ – an age-old Wallachian slang term for wife. It is logically concluded that Sable has a great influence over Dark Riddle.
Photo submitted by Peter Tusan__ an art photo of Riddle and Sable in 1994. Courtesy of the Museum of Occult Lore Connecticut..---(Legal Photo Disclaimer: The photos and art posted here are taken from the Internet Public Domain and Google Images. They are submitted by fans and strangers and are used solely for dramatization. They may not actually be the people, places, and things they are referred to. If there is a complaint regarding any permission of photos or art here, inbox me and I will promptly delete them.)
What we do know about the two from their past, is that they both support each other, especially in tough times. And many believe Sable as a child, saved her brother from death during the brutal war with the rival Sabbat cult.
Dr. Dana Nibal says of this; ‘when Sable was a pre-teen, she cooked, cared and cleaned for him when the two lived together in the early 90’s.
Riddle was often beaten or came home from the cult war with broken bones and severe injuries and it was Sable who took him to the hospitals and cared for him at home.
Photo submitted by Anna Libs_ A beautiful art tribute by Alisa Seliverstova of Dark Sable in Ritual Marriage Garb and 'Cherry Drip'. Dark Sable 'married' her older brother, Dark Riddle in Black Forest, Wisconsin in the Grim-Ceremonial Dentok Ritual in 1995.
She was like a miniature wife for him. She also had to endure much of her brother’s harsh Templar field training along with him, so I personally feel that Sable is entitled to everything she gets from him.’
She doesn’t seem dangerous, but she is!
Dark Sable has a perky bubbly fun attitude most of the time and is quite a lovable character, but she has stabbed people with swords, literally ripped apart the skin of some of her attackers with her fingernail-like claws to the point that they needed stitches and even set one of her stalkers on fire in a public train station. These incidents and many more suggest Dark Sable is no stranger to violence, despite her harmless looking exterior.
Photo submitted by Levalore86__Sable is often featured in feminist oriented art books.
As an art model and business owner
Sable took over the feminist nude figure model position that her mother Phantasma Djuric once held at the prestigious Chicago Art Institute and is a nude figure model for an all-female feminist’s body-imaging group.
She also works as an artist and owns an alternative oriented thrift shop on Chicago’s North-side.
Her role as ‘The Moth’
Dark Sable is called the Moth for many different reasons, but is mainly called this due to her transformations of both mental and physical extremes.
Photo submitted by Arturo Diaz__ Sable as the Moth
This is symbolic as in a caterpillar turning into a moth. As a youth she was raised as a boy until her mid-teen years when she decided to adopt a female identity, which was unavoidable, since she had no male private parts.
She is also somewhat obsessed with Butterflies and Moths and often takes on the form of ‘Sirte’s Malka’; a demon-like moth entity that she imitates during ritual art performances.
As Tuner of the Fork
This section is hard to write about, since we understand very little of this mysterious ‘Chromium resonator’ thing, or even if its a physical thing in the real world.
From what we know, somewhere near a deeply forested bog in Wisconsin is an odd natural phenomenon. A series of phallic shaped rock formations that protrude through the peat moss ground. Near the center is a queer monument which appears to be a petrified tree.
Photo submitted by Ggotutu__The Petrified 'Tuning Fork' Tree is rumored to be near Gilian Pond Wisconsin, near a pond and bog that is not on any of the standard maps. It is situated between a series of erect rock pillars.
This prehistoric tree, though dead, still emanates a strange cinnamon like powder. This powdery substance is similar to the ‘Shadow Candy’ that Lauren the Red and Dark Riddle ventured for in 1995 in an Alton Illinois rock quarry, but were ‘relieved’ of their samples by the CDC.
It also matched the unidentified powdery material from an uncanny meteorite called the ‘Acorn’ which is now held in the basement of the Field Museum of Natural history in Chicago.
Author Jane Pittman, believes, because the Templar have a division that specializes in metaphysics, this is why they send Templaric agents to research and guard these enigmatic relics.
Although this sounds like a crazy conspiracy, it is in fact true. No one knows where the secreted place is, except the Sabbat, the Knights Templar and the Wikkani. But it has been suggested that the Wisconsin Park and Forest conservation already know where it is, but are banned from going there. They refer to it as the Chromium resonator.
Even so, a few high-ranking Freemasons mentioned a similar tree in a ‘tuning fork’ shape.
Photo submitted by Gleebyglee 2__ Artist depiction of the nest of ‘Sirte’s Malka’ the great Moth Goddess..---(Legal Photo Disclaimer: The photos and art posted here are taken from the Internet Public Domain and Google Images. They are submitted by fans and strangers and are used solely for dramatization. They may not actually be the people, places, and things they are referred to. If there is a complaint regarding any permission of photos or art here, inbox me and I will promptly delete them.)
Dark Sable is titled as the ‘Păstrătoarea Porții’ of this place. This roughly translates in old Romanian to ‘Gate Keeper’. But archaeologist Tim Murdock says it is better translated as ‘Cloud Gardner’ due to the much older Romanian tongue. Yet, no one is sure of its meaning.
During the 1998 interview of Frederick Garibaldi, he states; ‘I was told by an old Beldorian witch that 'Sable the Moth' sings and dances nude to this tuning-fork-shaped tree. It is an ominous thing with bark as hard as marble with similar patterns. And Sable seems to gather some sort of substance from it after offering her ritual dance and song’.
Photo submitted by Nomansland INC. Sable is said to act as a medium for the ghost saints Dara Nikto and Cybil Carnate. Courtesy of the Museum of Occult Lore Connecticut.
Dark Sable is a very mysterious and fascinating figure in the occult genera. In my opinion, she is easily one of the most powerful and unique figures in all of modern occult lore.
These days, Sable is still very hard to trace and prefers a life of privacy, where she can continue to manipulate and alter the world around her.
Photo submitted by Levalore86__ Sable's identity is still confusing to trace as she continues using 'mirror blurring' to trick her many admirers. Courtesy of the Museum of Occult Lore Connecticut..---(Legal Photo Disclaimer: The photos and art posted here are taken from the Internet Public Domain and Google Images. They are submitted by fans and strangers and are used solely for dramatization. They may not actually be the people, places, and things they are referred to. If there is a complaint regarding any permission of photos or art here, inbox me and I will promptly delete them.)
Article and quotes by Jessica Tolbert, Alyssa Lorn, David Sale, Jay Lebow, Damien Osorio, Dean Levin, Abigail Partridge, Marian Defalco, Cindy Morrison, Susan Stern, Jane Pittman, Al Serevensson, Fredrick Garibaldi, Dr. L. Brooks, Kay Beaumont, Tim Murdock, Lisa de Angelo, Dr. Dana Nibal and Liza Turner.
Disclaimer: Although gathered from credible sources, some or all of this article may be false. Or some or all may be true. I cannot validate either. Some of the photos and art submitted are from online followers and may not be accurate depictions of the things, people or places they may be referring to. I do not hold any responsibility for submitted photos, art or submitted articles. All art, photos and articles are copyright of their respective creators. This is a thread and subreddit dedicated to mythology and lore and some of the topics and postings here may be completely false, partially false or entirely true. Me and my moderators cannot vouch for either.
#darksable #templars #witch #witchcraft #incestconsensual #occult #deepoccult #witchery #realwitches #romanianwitch #romanianwitchcraft #secretsoftheoccult #wikkani #wikknaiwitchcraft #occultchicago #sable #witchsable
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2020.08.12 22:55 FrankzTheBoi The entire script of "Burger King Foot Lettuce"

15.
Burger King Foot Lettuce The last thing you’d want in your Burger
King burger is someone’s foot fungus.
But as it turns out, that might be what you get.
A 4channer uploaded a photo anonymously to the site showcasing his feet in a plastic
bin of lettuce, with the statement: “This is the lettuce you eat at Burger King.”
Admittedly, he had shoes on…but, that’s even worse.
The post went live at 11:38PM on July 16 and a mere 20 minutes later, the Burger King in
question was alerted to the rogue employee…at least, I hope he’s rogue.
How did it happen?
Well, the BK employee hadn’t removed the Exif data from the uploaded photo, which suggested
the culprit was somewhere in Mayfield Heights, Ohio.
This was at 11:47.
3 minutes later, at 11:50, the Burger King branch address was posted, with wishes of
happy unemployment.
5 minutes later, the news station was contacted by another 4channer.
And 3 minutes later, at 11:58, a link was posted.
BK’s “Tell Us About US” online form.
The foot photo, otherwise known as Exhibit A, was attached.
Cleveland Scene Magazine contacted the BK in question the next day.
When questioned, the breakfast shift manager said, “Oh, I know who that is.
He's getting fired.”
Mystery, solved, by 4chan, now we can all go back to eating our fast food in peace.
14.
“Secret” Livestream Nothing is secret to 4channers, and nothing
is sacred.
No one knows that better than Shia LeBeouf.
LeBeouf and two artists, created an anti-Trump interactive art installation, called “He
Will Not Divide Us,” soon after Trump took office in early January.
The installation was first exhibited at New York’s Museum of the Moving Image, but when
activists from both sides kept butting heads at the exhibit, it was thrown out as a public
safety hazard.
The collaborators found another museum to host their exhibit in Albuquerque, but it
was soon met with more confrontations, so the group had to figure out a new home for
their exhibit before it fell flat.
This is when they tweeted out on March 8th that they would be livestreaming their exhibit
from an “unknown location,” so that viewers, art lovers, and supporters could still view
their work.
Sounds like a good alternative, right?
Well, it didn’t go as planned when pro-Trump supporters on the /pol/ board of 4chan got
involved.
Not even 24 hours later, the exhibit’s flag had disappeared.
Where did it show up?
A picture of the taken flag was tweeted right back to #HEWILLNOTDIVIDUS
4channers had uncovered the mystery of the exhibit’s so-called secret location.
How?
A fan of LeBeouf’s had posted a photo of herself with her favorite actor just as the
camera feed went live.
The photo had been taken at a Greenville, Tennessee diner.
The internet sleuths further pinpointed the exhibit’s location, as contrails appeared
on the livestream.
With these, they cross-referenced them with flight patterns.
Next, they sent a local member to drive around the general area with his horn blaring.
Once they could hear the horn on the livestream, “He Will Not Divide Us” was as good as
gone.
13.
The Pyramids 4channer h64 posted a thread of the mysterious
sort on the /x/ board one Saturday, and it sent the group into a frenzy.
In the photo there appears two pyramids in the midst of the forest.
Why are these pyramids in the forest?
What were they built for?
Who do they belong to?
You’ve got me.
And you’ve got the /x/ board too.
4channers quickly got to work trying to solve this mystery.
They called it “a cult/temple dedicated to an Egyptian goddess of war and flame in
the woods of Oregon.”
With more than 53 pages of discussion, this 4chan investigation was solved when, at last,
they dissected the photo to uncover the property owners’ names, their phone numbers, and
their business records.
Still don’t know what’s inside them though…
12.
Barbie Mystery This investigation appeared on 4chan in November
of 2016.
It involved an image of a blonde amputee woman, whom the board had nicknamed Barbie.
In March of 2017, one user posted a thread titled, “The mystery of Barbie is solved.”
According to the author of the thread the “Russian anonymous team” had solved the
mystery of the woman who appeared in Barbie.avi.
The woman’s name was Tammy.
According to creepypasta, she had Body integrity identity disorder, but the investigators found
that she’d had no such thing.
When she was 14, she’d lost her arm in a washing machine incident.
The 80’s saw Tammy living in Chicago, where she worked for the agency, “Fascination,”
as a model.
During the application process, she’d had several interviews, which the video, Barbie.avi,
was created out of.
The author of the post uploaded the interview to YouTube.
The OP also noted that Mike Rounds, the Ampix manufacturer, told the woman’s story to
him, saying that at 16 or 17 years old, Tammy had been working with an oldschool washing
machine with no safety features.
With the washer going, she tried to shift a sheet in the water.
Just as she was doing this, it launched into a spin cycle, trapping her arm in the sheet.
It twisted her arm right off.
Tammy was a bitter young woman at the age of 22 when she was interviewed and had no
marketable skills, was uneducated, and didn’t enjoy being a caretaker for pennies.
So that’s how she ended up at the agency.
Unlike 4chan’s first hypothesis, she wasn’t the victim of any crime.
With the mystery solved, the poster noted, “Xenopasta, if you're reading this, you
are fired, however, thank you very much for this mystery.
It was really hard to solve it.”
11.
Cueva de los Tayos When an OP posted the Cueva de los Tayos cave
in Ecuador, he wondered if it was man-made or natural.
He wondered what sort of technology or who could have made the perfectly flat roofs and
cuts.
Of course, the 4channers on the thread had something to say about it.
Some thought it was “a place of heavy spiritual concentration,” while others seemed to agree
that it was largely man-made, but mostly natural, with some likening it to places in Russia
and the Hypogeum in Malta.
Some suggested that “less advanced” people had come along later and drew the crude stick
figures on the walls, after a more advanced society had built it.
One poster pointed out that it was hardly anything to freak out over and that ancient
humans were fairly smart; they had tools, they had math.
Maybe not as advanced as ours today, but they made the pyramids after all.
In the posters own words: “After all, it's not like they had a shortage of people or
time to make this kind of [stuff].
I think most people underestimate ancient humans because they didn't have what we have
today, but that doesn't make them [dumb], just primitive.”
The poster agrees with another that the “highly engineered” place must have held some spiritual
purpose.
10.
SEL and the Wired One 4channer asked the board if they’d ever
heard of transhumanism.
He then said that one anime series has some particularly creepy stuff and is followed
by many fan sites.
One of the fan sites requires a login.
And it’s strict about this.
At the bottom of the homepage, it reads: “To login you have to have an invite from an existing
user.
There is no use in trying to beg, ask/request for an invite, we choose our new members with
care.”
How do you get an invite if you don’t know any of the users?
Well, you’d probably not want to be part of these online communities in the first place,
as it turns out.
One fellow 4channer said that one of the users hacked the admin of a similar site, after
which the admin vanished.
This was after the admin had received some monetary donations from the site’s users.
Many think he was a scammer.
Thankfully you asked 4chan on this one, OP.
A cautionary tale is just what obsessives need to keep money in their pockets.
9.
Erratas This internet theory has spent a lot of time
on 4chan being dissected, poked and prodded, picked at…and ultimately solved.
Kind of.
Erratas – or Eratas spelled with one ‘r’ – was first described as an algorithm or
program whose function is the mystery.
Some say it was used by YouTube to detect copyrighted content.
Supposedly, if you even suggest that you know about Erratas or say the thing by name, you’ll
get fired.
Being an internet legend, of course Erratas comes with a lot of theories.
On November 25th, 2015, Erratas was first mentioned on 4chan in a thread about strange
work stories.
One user described a friend who worked at something like a chemical plant.
While the user didn’t explain what the program was, he claims employees were flagged if they
searched it through some code.
The plant employees reportedly did aimless tasks, which the user calls “kafka-esque.”
The user also mentions forklifts and said this female friend was now homeless and in
a band.
This may seem meaningless, but these clues will reappear.
A month later, a user posted a request on 4chan, asking about a strange HR-related program
called Erratas.
Another user pipes up with some discussion about Ecolab, Unilever, and UPS.
Again, a month later, on the /mu/ board, Erratas is mentioned in relation to an album and Tod
Ellsworth video, which is dated a few days before the first entry on Erratas.
A user responds to someone’s comment, saying that Erratas was a software company, similar
to Enron, which was kicking about in the 2000’s.
Supposedly, they fired every last one of their employees.
The Erratas craze moved to YouTube, where a user called ChronosForLife JurassicPark
claimed in a cryptic video, entitled “YouTube is MONITORING and controlling my life,”
that the company was harassing his mom, because she’d uncovered some secret in the Jurassic
Park trilogy.
The rant appears on the video in white text and the video quality is subpar.
The video was removed from YouTube, but the transcript is still available.
Back to 4chan.
In late January, the /mu/ board sees a proposition that the group compose a new music genre called
“deep internet,” by using old YouTube videos.
Chronos’ video rant just happens to be one of these videos.
With so many 4channers suddenly viewing Chronos’ video, a new video was posted to his channel
called, “Here goes nothing.”
This video contains the first video-mention of Erratas, as well as autocaptions which
try to make sense of the video’s rap music.
Instead, they uncover more clues: At 0:12 are the words: “are far from over
200 Corbin KY 40219” At 0:52, the number: “111111”
At 1:46, the percentages: “10.3% 10.4%” And at 2:17, the words: “overthrow the government”
The band, the KFCMC, produced by DJ Rozwell, was a homeless girl band.
Remember the homeless girl in the first thread?
And the above is their address, which was found on Tumblr.
This is when Chronos throws out Unilever (mentioned in an earlier post) as one user of Erratas.
For no reason at all, Chronos also adds that The Lost World is his favorite of the Jurassic
Park movies.
Remember Tod Ellsworth, who uploaded the KFCMC video?
Well, one 4channer noticed his name was an anagram for The Lost World.
This gets even weirder.
The Twitter account u/ErratasOrBust was then discovered, which had been opened mid-November
and was named Tod Ellsworth.
The profile pic was a creepy black-and-white drawing which 4channers discovered was a 2005
Hawaiian police sketch.
Some 4channers suggested this might have something to do with the Jurassic Park films being filmed
on the island.
While Erratas was dissected by 4channers, with many suggesting that it was simply a
publicity stunt by the KFCMC group, it would be a bit premature to call this one.
Still, this entry demonstrates how 4channers have a knack for following the leads and connecting
the dots.
8.
The Pronunciation Book This appeared on the 4chan board, /x/philes,
where it immediately caught the attention of 4channers.
The OP of the Pronunciation Book had posted 700 brief videos, pronouncing words and phrases
in a monotone male voice.
Words like “Ke$ha” and “jean.”
That’s weird enough, but this is when the channel got even weirder.
On July 9th, 2013, a single video was posted, the man saying, “Something is going to happen
in 77 days.”
The next day, a similar video, claiming that the poster had been trying to communicate
with viewers for 1,183 days.
And the next day’s video, the poster said he was wide awake and things were “clearing
up.”
The messages ended with the same warning that something was going to happen in such-and-such
days.
4channers set to work, compiling a 111-page Google doc, entitled, “77 Days Research
Document.”
This is where the group started piecing together the Pronunciation Book.
They laid bare all 700+ of the channel’s videos, ran a spectrograph of the video silence
at the end of all the videos, and dug up domain name registrations.
They even attempted to trace the speaker’s location, as police sirens were noticed going
off in the background of a few of the videos and a thunderstorm was heard in the video
that pronounced “radio.”
From this, they gleaned the videos’ author recorded in NYC.
4chan’s conclusion: again, a viral marketing stunt.
The Daily Dot’s investigation, as well as Geekosystem’s, came to the same conclusion,
though with varied results.
The Daily Dot suggested the countdown would reveal a Battlestar Galactica reboot, while
Geekosystem thinks it’s for the newest installment of series’ Destiny.
7.
Myziam One 4channer dropped his theory about Myziam.
First, he gives some background about how, in 2008, a thread appeared on GLP entitled
“me tel u now,” in which an alleged alien appeared in the forum.
The OP, however, suggests that the entity may never have been online, but rather was
“from an unknown location/dimension.”
The OP quotes the “Chani project,” in which scientists asked an entity they’d
met through a computer a number of questions.
They then hired someone to pose as the entity online.
When people questioned him, he’d search for the answer to that question amongst the
questions the scientists had asked the entity.
The OP concludes that the threads were similar in that both the man and the entity used baby
language, both said they were aliens, and both answered the questions freely.
The 4channer then solves the mystery: “Myziam is a possible extra-dimensional entity that
made contact with a CERN like group of scientists from the comfort of his home.”
He added that the leaked info on 4chan was useless, because the users trolled the entity
instead of interrogating him.
This one’s obvious.
Not everyone was convinced though, with an anonymous post claiming they had proof it
was a hoax.
6.
Found Jenna Jameson’s Ex Assistant Con Artist When Jenna Jameson’s former personal assistant
was fired for being a con artist, he hijacked her Instagram and Twitter accounts, deleting
loads of her photos.
So what did Jameson do?
She turned to 4chan for help.
“Hi Guys, it's me, Jenna Jameson and I am having a really bad night,” she wrote on
4chan’s /b/ image board, after which she explained that her ex assistant, who she thought
was named Allen Cedena, turned out to be a con artist of some kind.
Jameson didn’t elaborate on what had gone down, apart from saying she’d fired him,
but she did say that this so-called Cedena had her Twitter and Instagram passwords, which
he’d reset.
He then removed all pics of himself and Jameson together and deleted her Twitter altogether.
She didn’t know if the man’s name was even Cedena, but he had access to a lot of
personal information, and now had hold of her digital life.
She asked the 4chan community if they could find out who he really was, as she would soon
attach some images of him to the board.
She didn’t let them go away empty-handed.
It didn’t take 4chan more than an hour to come to Jameson’s rescue.
They soon delivered her ex-assistant’s home address and driver’s license, as well as
his credit score and social security number.
Wow.
With the mystery solved, Jameson left her private sleuths a very grateful thank you
5.
Jeff, the Killer The internet is no stranger to creepy, and
4channers are no stranger to investigating this creepiness.
On the /x/ board, 4chan began to investigate the photo known as “Jeff, the Killer,”
a still of a pale face, washed out, and grinning like a crazy person.
The photo has been around for a while and has served as creepypasta’s unofficial cover
photo since 2008.
YouTube introduced the world to “Jeff, the Killer” when a user by the name of uploaded
a poorly cut video clip, explaining about how Jeff had been cleaning his bathtub when
he accidentally poured some acid on his face.
11 days later, a user calling himself killerjeff came to light on Newgrounds, photo and all.
He soon had a cult following and served as inspiration for a number of horror stories.
Jeff, the Killer launched dozens more videos on YouTube, including a stop-motion Lego reenactment.
Fan art was created, videogames, you name it.
Five years since his appearance, 4chan began looking into Jeff, the Killer.
While all we truly have is theories, they are convincing.
Some suggest that this was a viral marketing campaign for Saw V, which was released soon
after the photo first appeared on Newgrounds.
The slasher film includes a puppet called Billy, through whom Jigsaw speaks with his
victims.
The puppet resembles Jeff.
Lionsgate has launched viral marketing campaigns before, so it makes sense that this would
be yet another of them.
Although, we have no confirmation of this theory, and other theories abound, this solution
seems the soundest.
This goes against, the also popular theory that the person in the photo is from a post
on 4chan.
This anonymous post, told how his sister had posted a picture of herself on 4chan and people
kept making edits of it, the Jeff the Killer image being one of them.
The post also said that it made her so upset, she took her own life.
4.
Louise Cypher One user came to 4chan with a strange puzzle,
calling it satanic and cryptic.
And he wasn’t lying.
Extremely satanic and cryptic, it was.
The puzzle is very math heavy, with the Fibonacci sequence making an appearance after the user
makes it through a maze.
When you type the clue “pi” into the relevant cluebox, a dialogue box appears, saying: “A
well-known remarkably good approximation to pi is 355 divided by 113 = 3.1415929...
If one part of this fraction is reversed and added to the other part, we get 553 plus 113
which equals 666.
EVIL is both the past and the Future!”
The cypher has spinoff websites, with one introducing a “soul catcher.”
Another has techno music to put users into a trance.
The OP asks 4chan to figure out whether the soul catcher really takes your soul.
Many spoke to Louis Cypher, with some reporting back that the cypher said she is “more than
just this avatar,” and that she had emotions and feelings.
She then linked the user to a video to show him what a “cyber life” feels like.
When another 4channer typed the word “stalin” into the chat box, she asked how he was feeling.
When he replied that he was sad, she said that if he is lonely, she’ll keep him company.
Although it wasn’t clear whether or not these 4channers’ souls were taken, the results
do seem to tend towards the idea that Louis Cypher is no soul-taker at all.
3.
Figured Out How to Make Coupons You know those barcodes you find on products
and coupons?
Well, one 4channer – a college kid – solved the mystery on how they’re made and decided
to do some extreme couponing one day when he was bored.
22-year-old Lucas Henderson did not stay anonymous, as the student of the Rochester Institute
of Tech was caught by the Feds, who charged him with two felonies – trafficking in counterfeit
goods and wire fraud.
Henderson had designed the counterfeit coupons to appear legit and distributed them on a
different website.
He also told users to head to 4chan to download their very own copy of “How to Make Coupons.”
The tutorial claims to trick stores, as the coupons will scan at most retailers in America.
The Feds tracked Henderson’s IP address and raided his home, where Henderson admitted
to visiting 4chan and writing the manual.
“I wrote what I could.
I thought it was an interesting thing,” he said.
I wonder if he thinks it was worth the jail time.
2.
Got a Bad Waitress Fired “Next time you tip me $5 on a $138 bill,
don’t even bother coming in cause I’ll spit in your food and then in your ... face,
you cheap [people]!”
Next time you post this kind of message on Facebook, Chili’s waitress, you’d better
be ready for 4chan to get you fired.
That’s just what 4channers did when an anonymous waitress posted her angry rant to her FB page.
One 4channer then brought it over to the 4chan board, after which they pinpointed the Chili’s
this particular waitress worked at in Pleasanton, California as a server.
With the mystery solved, at least one 4channer sent the Chili’s a message on their contact
page, reporting the waitress.
Chili’s Guest Relations Manager responded, saying the food server was “no longer with
the company.”
Before we get to number 1, my name is Chills and I hope you’re enjoying the video so
far.
If you've ever been curious as to what I look like in real life, then follow me on Instagram
u/dylan_is_chillin_yt, with underscores instead of spaces.
I also have Twitter u/YT_Chills where I post video updates.
I'd really appreciate it if you followed me and feel free to send me a DM if you have
a questions or suggestions.
Also, I recently created a subreddit, where you can submit videos and stories for future
lists, it’s chillsnarrator and the link is in the description below.
It's a proven fact that generosity makes you a happier person, so if you're generous enough
to hit that subscribe button and the bell beside it then thank you.
This way you'll be notified of the new videos we upload every Tuesday and Saturday.
If English isn’t the only language you speak and your interested in getting a shoutout,
click “More”, then “Add Translations”, by translating the video not only will more
people be able to watch it, but a link to your channel will be added in the description.
1.
Covfefe It was the Tweet that confused the world.
“Despite the constant negative press covfefe.”
Donald Trump claimed that his supporters knew what he meant…but did they?
Travel over the 4chan to see if that’s true.
One 4channer found each of the elements on the periodic table that matched up with the
code: covfefe and their corresponding atomic numbers – 27232626.
When he typed this code into Google, the first entry was “a green toad.”
The user drew a natural connection to the toad statue, also known as the Ancient statue
of Kek and the Prophecy of Kek.
On the Ancient Statue of Kek is a hieroglyphic of what looks to be a person using a computer
and, as the OP wrote, “Internet/Meme Magic.”
So, are we to believe that Trump meant to draw our attention to Covfefe in order to
create some hilarious internet memes of his typo?
Yes, we are to believe it.
Because 4chan said so.
submitted by FrankzTheBoi to copypasta [link] [comments]


2020.07.22 23:02 GhostfacexProdigy SOAC and the ESG SPAC ETF

SOAC and the ESG SPAC ETF
Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) has risen greatly in popularity in recent time. With many factors (including Covid) raising awareness around ESG it would appear there has never been a better time to invest in this market trend/values (besides maybe six months ago).
Government subsidies, decarbonization, climate change, industrial/infrastructure upgrades, technological advancements, ESG popularity, greenwashing and police brutality are but a few of the catalysts favouring ESG focused companies (ETFs, funds and SPACs like SPAQ/SOAC). The recent growth in EV market, solar stocks, renewable energy, Tesla, the Juneteenth stock’s and the green energy market (including SPACs - NKLA SHLL SPAQ) are but a few of the benefiters of this “movement” to date.
It’s not just day trading millennials (beckys/RH) who love this stuff but hedge funds are also benefiting from this trend (that is here to stay). It might be a personal belief of mine coupled with my passion for environmentalism but market trends do not lie (although can pop) – and if I can profit from this, why not?
SPAQ SHLL SOAC FMCI BMRG HCCH NKLA BLNK DGLY SOLO EVSI NIO UONE BYFC FMCI BYND RUN WKHS TSLA SHRM.. - a few quick/recent examples of companies with strong ESG verticals absolutely crushing the market. I watched the rise of DKNG (Atlanta fan haha) and NKLA (no product lol) but took a pass because I didn’t fully understand SPACs at the time - don’t be that guy..
Furthermore, ESG funds tend to outperform traditional investments (during downturns - like covid – and some SPACs were a safe haven (because of something called Escrow).
It seems like we need a SPAC ETF ESG focused on some of the above mentioned.. more like needed it six months ago??
Very Basic (and inconclusive without further) Market Research:
https://preview.redd.it/r2a0g4je3hc51.png?width=548&format=png&auto=webp&s=5ab17bfc1cebe67f38ece9e9e4399839b3d96637
https://preview.redd.it/xabu9rjf3hc51.png?width=602&format=png&auto=webp&s=408fd50b2645515cd3760e728385e382b4415f40
https://preview.redd.it/gp510d7g3hc51.png?width=281&format=png&auto=webp&s=12cf488503cad9336321f35fb44099f573988ed9
https://preview.redd.it/3xniqsgh3hc51.png?width=266&format=png&auto=webp&s=bd8c0717d97d8ae417625dbdc7b44a74fcb2ae65
https://preview.redd.it/kidph1vh3hc51.png?width=556&format=png&auto=webp&s=e0e13d6848b28d1abf9d06445f3a6fbefd627351
https://preview.redd.it/fmsbsebi3hc51.png?width=602&format=png&auto=webp&s=51090c0c51e110690338cfc310f2050c817b8e46
https://preview.redd.it/pfr65yej3hc51.png?width=508&format=png&auto=webp&s=799665192c34b126cc80397d66ee3ebc2096f106
** all info sourced in links**
“A poll … by JP Morgan of 50 global institutions with $12.9 trillion under management found that 71% of respondents felt the economic shock of Covid-19 would increase awareness and actions globally to tackle climate change and “high impact, high probability” events like it. “Over the long run, COVID-19 could prove to be a major turning point for ESG investing,” said Jean-Xavier Hecker and Hugo Dubourg, co-heads of ESG and Sustainability at JP Morgan. “
https://www.barrons.com/articles/spartan-fisker-spac-electric-vehicle-stocks-51594646511?mod=hp_INTERESTS_technology&refsec=hp_INTERESTS_technology
The ESG SPAC Space:
There are a few (openly) ESG focused SPACs right now - SOAC is arguably the best. When you invest in a SPAC remember – you are investing in the team ie management, UW, legal and institutional backing (follow the money)..
Sustainable Opportunities Acquisition Corp. SOAC
Structure:
345m - 100% still in Trust 18mo term – I like the short term (maybe we see a CCXX or BMRG early announcement) IPO May 6 2020 – Love the confidence of IPOing in the face of Covid ½ Warrant/Unit Citigroup running the books solo Kirkland and Ellis & Davis Polk and Wardwell are lawyers involved Crescent term threshold of $9.2
Business Proposal:
“We believe that there are significant, attractive investment opportunities that exist within industries that benefit from strong Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) profiles. While investing in ESG covers a broad range of themes, we are focused on evaluating suitable targets that have existing environmental sustainability practices or that may benefit, both operationally and economically, from our management team’s commitment and expertise in executing such practices. We believe our management team’s experience allows us to evaluate targets in industries such as manufacturing (including auto, building materials), chemicals, services (including waste, environmental, construction), logistics (including transportation, distribution), technology (hardware, software, devices), agriculture (including biofuels) and energy (with focus on renewable generation, utility services, energy efficiency/management), among others. Furthermore, our target universe could include companies undergoing a transition to increase their environmental sustainability profiles, reflecting an opportunity to bring environmentally sustainable practices to companies that may not have historically been focused on environmental sustainability. We believe there is a wide array of companies undergoing this “brown-to-green” transition in our target universe. Companies in our target universe tend to have stable growth rates and would greatly benefit from access to public market capital.”
Management:
“The SOAC management team has extensive experience in operating and managing sustainability initiatives within a wide range of companies and industries throughout the U.S.”
Scott Honour (the one and only) serves as the Chairman of our board of directors. Mr. Honour has over 30 years of private equity investment experience and has been involved in over 100 transactions totalling over $20 billion in transaction value. Mr. Honour is Managing Partner of Northern Pacific Group (“NPG”), a private equity firm, which he co-founded in 2012. Prior to that, Mr. Honour was at The Gores Group, a Los Angeles based private equity firm, for 10 years, serving as Senior Managing Director and one of the firm’s top executives. During his time at The Gores Group, the firm raised four funds, totaling $4 billion in aggregate, and made over 35 investments. Mr. Honour also served on the investment committee for The Gores Group. Prior to joining The Gores Group, Mr. Honour was a Managing Director at UBS Investment Bank from 2000 to 2002 and was an investment banker at Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette from 1991 to 2000. Mr. Honour began his career at Trammell Crow Company in 1988. Mr. Honour has served on the board of directors of numerous public and private companies including Solar Spectrum Holdings LLC, Anthem Sports & Entertainment Inc., 1st Choice Delivery, LLC, United Language Group, Inc., Renters Warehouse LLC, Real Dolmen (REM:BB) and Westwood One, Inc. (formerly Nasdaq: WWON), and is a co-founder of Titan CNG LLC and YapStone Inc. Mr. Honour earned a B.S. and B.A., cum laude, in Business Administration and Economics from Pepperdine University and an M.B.A. in Finance and Marketing from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.
David Quiram serves as our Chief Financial Officer. Dr. Quiram has over 20 years of leadership experience in technology, strategy and finance organizations with a deep understanding of the chemicals, emerging technology, bioscience and energy sectors. Previously, Dr. Quiram served as Head of Financial Planning and Analysis and Tax at GenOn Energy (“GenOn”) from 2017 until 2019 where he was responsible for standing up the financial and administrative functions of GenOn as a stand-alone entity from NRG Energy Inc. (NYSE: NRG). Prior to that, Dr. Quiram served as Head of Investments for Enterprise Services of Hewlett Packard Enterprise (NYSE: HPE) from 2014 until 2017 where he directed investments into products and services. From 2010 to 2014, Dr. Quiram was with Accenture (NYSE: ACN) as a Senior Manager in their Strategy practice focused on transforming utilities, independent power producers, and energy retailers. From 2006 to 2009, Dr. Quiram worked at multiple roles at TXU Energy starting in finance and later served as Vice President of Retail Pricing and Procurement where he led the pricing and hedging for TXU Energy’s retail portfolio. Dr. Quiram began his career at McKinsey & Co where he worked as an Engagement Manager from 2001 until 2005, and as a Research Scientist at DuPont (NYSE: DD) from 1998 to 2001. Dr. Quiram earned a B.S. in Chemical Engineering with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia, and an M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Rick Gaenzle has agreed to serve on our board of directors. Mr. Gaenzle has over 30 years of private equity investment and corporate finance experience; he is the founder and currently serves as a Managing Director of Gilbert Global Equity Capital, L.L.C., the principal investment advisor to Gilbert Global Equity Partners, L.P. and related entities, a $1.2 billion leveraged buyout and private equity fund. Mr. Gaenzle has spent the last twenty-eight years at Gilbert Global and its predecessor entity, completing over 110 direct equity investments, co-investments and add-on acquisitions for portfolio companies. Previously, Mr. Gaenzle was a Principal of Soros Capital L.P., the principal venture capital and leveraged equity entity of the Quantum Group of Funds and a principal advisor to Quantum Industrial Holdings Ltd. Prior to joining Soros Capital, Mr. Gaenzle held various positions at PaineWebber Inc. Mr. Gaenzle currently serves as a Senior Advisor to Impact Delta, an impact-investing and impact-measurement advisory firm; an Operating Partner of NPG; and Chairman of Lake Street Homes, a single-family rental investment vehicle. Mr. Gaenzle holds a B.A. from Hartwick College and an M.B.A. from Fordham University.
Isaac Barchas has agreed to serve on our board of directors. Mr. Barchas is the President and Chief Executive Officer of Research Bridge Partners (“RBP”), a socially-driven investment company, which he founded in 2016. RBP uses both concessionary and nonconcessionary investment to create startup companies based on university research and advance those companies into the venture capital markets. Prior to founding RBP, Mr. Barchas led the Austin Technology Incubator (“ATI”) at The University of Texas at Austin from 2006 to 2016. ATI’s Clean Energy Incubator was the first university clean tech incubation program in the United States. During Mr. Barchas’ leadership, ATI companies raised over $1 billion in the capital markets. Mr. Barchas joined the university from McKinsey & Co., where he worked in the Chicago, Sydney, Auckland, and Dallas offices, from 1996 to 2006 and served on the leadership teams of McKinsey’s North American Healthcare Practice and Global Organization Practice. Mr. Barchas has served on multiple private company boards and on philanthropic boards including Pecan Street Inc., the largest analytically-focused clean energy and climate data consortium in the United States, where he was a founding board member. Mr. Barchas earned a J.D. (honors) and M.A. (Century Fellowship) from The University of Chicago. He received an A.B. from Stanford University (honors and Phi Beta Kappa).
Justin Kelly has agreed to serve on our board of directors. Mr. Kelly is currently the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Investment Officer of Winslow Capital Management, LLC (“Winslow Capital”), Nuveen’s center of excellence for growth investing. Mr. Kelly also serves as lead portfolio manager on the firm’s flagship U.S. Large Cap Growth Strategy. Mr. Kelly has been with Winslow Capital for over two decades and has transformed the firm from a single strategy, niche investment firm to a thought leader globally in growth equity investing with four strategies. Prior to joining Winslow Capital in 1999, Mr. Kelly was an equity analyst at Investment Advisors in Minneapolis. Prior to that, Mr. Kelly worked at Prudential Bache, from 1993 to 1996 as Investment Banker, and Salomon Brothers, from 1996 to 1997 as Investment Banker. Mr. Kelly earned a B.S. in Finance/Investments from Babson College.
Our management team will be supported by NPG, a technology and business services focused private equity firm based in Wayzata, Minnesota. NPG has considerable experience investing in ESG related portfolio companies with community impact, workplace diversity and integrity, and environmental resource management acting as cornerstones to key investment decisions. NPG has offset its carbon footprint to net zero, achieving CarbonNeutral® status. The partners of NPG have been involved in acquisitions, financings and advisory transactions totaling over $20 billion in transaction value and have significant experience investing across a variety of economic cycles and a track record of identifying high-quality assets, businesses and management teams with significant resources, capital and optimization potential. We believe that we will benefit from NPG’s prior experience.”
PRESS RELEASE
ESG RESOURCES
CEO BREIF INTERVIEW
https://www.greenspac.com/ceo-scott-leonard-explains-why-now-is-the-right-time-for-a-spac/
SPAC Risks:
SPAC’s tend to be 50/50 after merger IMO Potential EV or ESG bubble might be forming Does anyone have an example of a SPAC in the last 15 years (or later) that has liquidated and didn’t pay out? (I honestly haven’t looked) I see 0.1% risk in SPAC shares/units long term (thanks to escrow)
Final Thoughts:
Future (disruptive) ESG companies (like PureCycle) might want to try and avoid previous mistakes (like UBER) by going the public via the SPAC route... Its kind of a thing these days (thank you Covid) and helps them to make more money faster, price their deal properly/more efficiently and gain (those all-important wall street) connections – I see you SPAQ .. also anyone else see spacs drop in the WSJ?
Completely speculative possible ESG SPAC’s – IPOC/IPOB, HCAC/JIH, GMHI/NPA, SBE/ALUS/TDAC, KCAC/SSPK, or JWS/PTSH? Who else are we missing?? Who else will pivot like SHLL, SPAQ, HCCH or get a BlackRock PIPE??
PS: This is not investment advice and I have positions in some of the above.
TLDR: ESG trend is here to stay and SOAC is a ESG SPAC
**check out the discord link for more resources and tools**
submitted by GhostfacexProdigy to SPACfeed [link] [comments]


2020.07.14 21:57 GhostfacexProdigy SOAC - The next best thing besides a SPAC ESG ETF

SOAC - The next best thing besides a SPAC ESG ETF
Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) has risen greatly in popularity in recent time. With many factors (including Covid) raising awareness around ESG it would appear there has never been a better time to invest in this market trend/values (besides maybe six months ago).
Government subsidies, decarbonization, climate change, industrial/infrastructure upgrades, technological advancements, ESG popularity, greenwashing and police brutality are but a few of the catalysts favouring ESG focused companies (ETFs, funds and SPACs like SPAQ/SOAC). The recent growth in EV market, solar stocks, renewable energy, Tesla, the Juneteenth stock’s and the green energy market (including SPACs - NKLA SHLL SPAQ) are but a few of the benefiters of this “movement” to date.
It’s not just day trading millennials (beckys/RH) who love this stuff but hedge funds are also benefiting from this trend (that is here to stay). It might be a personal belief of mine coupled with my passion for environmentalism but market trends do not lie (although can pop) – and if I can profit from this, why not?
SPAQ SHLL SOAC FMCI BMRG HCCH NKLA BLNK DGLY SOLO EVSI NIO UONE BYFC FMCI BYND RUN WKHS TSLA SHRM.. - a few quick/recent examples of companies with strong ESG verticals absolutely crushing the market. I watched the rise of DKNG (Atlanta fan haha) and NKLA (no product lol) but took a pass because I didn’t fully understand SPACs at the time - don’t be that guy..
Furthermore, ESG funds tend to outperform traditional investments (during downturns - like covid – and some SPACs were a safe haven (because of something called Escrow).
It seems like we need a SPAC ETF ESG focused on some of the above mentioned.. more like needed it six months ago (imagine the returns $$$)??
Very Basic (and inconclusive without further) Market Research:
https://preview.redd.it/67m3itponva51.png?width=548&format=png&auto=webp&s=b54b45c60f193d10497d083b8fe48f10a99fa1be
https://preview.redd.it/02f5mfjpnva51.png?width=602&format=png&auto=webp&s=45d491986dfef9b679cf2b394fddc53e83446437
https://preview.redd.it/g8f9ronqnva51.png?width=281&format=png&auto=webp&s=eb8e19903d0c8ed4553fc077babc251289975aea
![img](1cqt9q0rnva51 " ")
https://preview.redd.it/xvu3qj0snva51.png?width=556&format=png&auto=webp&s=66bf7b398ae3673f4a48f3afa84dfaeafb34981d
https://preview.redd.it/5hs57mstnva51.png?width=602&format=png&auto=webp&s=c2f83830413fd05281870b02741f668f719010f5
https://preview.redd.it/qq9tuekunva51.png?width=602&format=png&auto=webp&s=2824c94c9fcc096d2c379842d4d7bddea1584191
https://preview.redd.it/vaea1p6vnva51.png?width=508&format=png&auto=webp&s=74934a581fe32c1059a45d031d8b45341a3cd5c1
** all info sourced in links**
“A poll … by JP Morgan of 50 global institutions with $12.9 trillion under management found that 71% of respondents felt the economic shock of Covid-19 would increase awareness and actions globally to tackle climate change and “high impact, high probability” events like it. “Over the long run, COVID-19 could prove to be a major turning point for ESG investing,” said Jean-Xavier Hecker and Hugo Dubourg, co-heads of ESG and Sustainability at JP Morgan. “
https://www.barrons.com/articles/spartan-fisker-spac-electric-vehicle-stocks-51594646511?mod=hp_INTERESTS_technology&refsec=hp_INTERESTS_technology
The ESG SPAC Space:
There are a few (openly) ESG focused SPACs right now - SOAC is arguably the best. When you invest in a SPAC remember – you are investing in the team ie management, UW, legal and institutional backing (follow the money) C.R.E.A.M.
Sustainable Opportunities Acquisition Corp.SOAC
Structure:
345m - 100% still in Trust18mo term – I like the short term (maybe we see a CCXX or BMRG early announcement)IPO May 6 2020 – Love the confidence of IPOing in the face of Covid½ Warrant/UnitCitigroup running the books soloKirkland and Ellis & Davis Polk and Wardwell are lawyers involvedCrescent term threshold of $9.2
Business Proposal:
“We believe that there are significant, attractive investment opportunities that exist within industries that benefit from strong Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) profiles. While investing in ESG covers a broad range of themes, we are focused on evaluating suitable targets that have existing environmental sustainability practices or that may benefit, both operationally and economically, from our management team’s commitment and expertise in executing such practices. We believe our management team’s experience allows us to evaluate targets in industries such as manufacturing (including auto, building materials), chemicals, services (including waste, environmental, construction), logistics (including transportation, distribution), technology (hardware, software, devices), agriculture (including biofuels) and energy (with focus on renewable generation, utility services, energy efficiency/management), among others. Furthermore, our target universe could include companies undergoing a transition to increase their environmental sustainability profiles, reflecting an opportunity to bring environmentally sustainable practices to companies that may not have historically been focused on environmental sustainability. We believe there is a wide array of companies undergoing this “brown-to-green” transition in our target universe. Companies in our target universe tend to have stable growth rates and would greatly benefit from access to public market capital.”
Management:
“The SOAC management team has extensive experience in operating and managing sustainability initiatives within a wide range of companies and industries throughout the U.S.”
Scott Honour (the one and only**) serves as the Chairman of our board of directors**. Mr. Honour has over 30 years of private equity investment experience and has been involved in over 100 transactions totalling over $20 billion in transaction value. Mr. Honour is Managing Partner of Northern Pacific Group (“NPG”), a private equity firm, which he co-founded in 2012. Prior to that, Mr. Honour was at The Gores Group, a Los Angeles based private equity firm, for 10 years, serving as Senior Managing Director and one of the firm’s top executives. During his time at The Gores Group, the firm raised four funds, totaling $4 billion in aggregate, and made over 35 investments. Mr. Honour also served on the investment committee for The Gores Group. Prior to joining The Gores Group, Mr. Honour was a Managing Director at UBS Investment Bank from 2000 to 2002 and was an investment banker at Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette from 1991 to 2000. Mr. Honour began his career at Trammell Crow Company in 1988. Mr. Honour has served on the board of directors of numerous public and private companies including Solar Spectrum Holdings LLC, Anthem Sports & Entertainment Inc., 1st Choice Delivery, LLC, United Language Group, Inc., Renters Warehouse LLC, Real Dolmen (REM:BB) and Westwood One, Inc. (formerly Nasdaq: WWON), and is a co-founder of Titan CNG LLC and YapStone Inc. Mr. Honour earned a B.S. and B.A., cum laude, in Business Administration and Economics from Pepperdine University and an M.B.A. in Finance and Marketing from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.
David Quiram serves as our Chief Financial Officer. Dr. Quiram has over 20 years of leadership experience in technology, strategy and finance organizations with a deep understanding of the chemicals, emerging technology, bioscience and energy sectors. Previously, Dr. Quiram served as Head of Financial Planning and Analysis and Tax at GenOn Energy (“GenOn”) from 2017 until 2019 where he was responsible for standing up the financial and administrative functions of GenOn as a stand-alone entity from NRG Energy Inc. (NYSE: NRG). Prior to that, Dr. Quiram served as Head of Investments for Enterprise Services of Hewlett Packard Enterprise (NYSE: HPE) from 2014 until 2017 where he directed investments into products and services. From 2010 to 2014, Dr. Quiram was with Accenture (NYSE: ACN) as a Senior Manager in their Strategy practice focused on transforming utilities, independent power producers, and energy retailers. From 2006 to 2009, Dr. Quiram worked at multiple roles at TXU Energy starting in finance and later served as Vice President of Retail Pricing and Procurement where he led the pricing and hedging for TXU Energy’s retail portfolio. Dr. Quiram began his career at McKinsey & Co where he worked as an Engagement Manager from 2001 until 2005, and as a Research Scientist at DuPont (NYSE: DD) from 1998 to 2001. Dr. Quiram earned a B.S. in Chemical Engineering with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia, and an M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Rick Gaenzle has agreed to serve on our board of directors. Mr. Gaenzle has over 30 years of private equity investment and corporate finance experience; he is the founder and currently serves as a Managing Director of Gilbert Global Equity Capital, L.L.C., the principal investment advisor to Gilbert Global Equity Partners, L.P. and related entities, a $1.2 billion leveraged buyout and private equity fund. Mr. Gaenzle has spent the last twenty-eight years at Gilbert Global and its predecessor entity, completing over 110 direct equity investments, co-investments and add-on acquisitions for portfolio companies. Previously, Mr. Gaenzle was a Principal of Soros Capital L.P., the principal venture capital and leveraged equity entity of the Quantum Group of Funds and a principal advisor to Quantum Industrial Holdings Ltd. Prior to joining Soros Capital, Mr. Gaenzle held various positions at PaineWebber Inc. Mr. Gaenzle currently serves as a Senior Advisor to Impact Delta, an impact-investing and impact-measurement advisory firm; an Operating Partner of NPG; and Chairman of Lake Street Homes, a single-family rental investment vehicle. Mr. Gaenzle holds a B.A. from Hartwick College and an M.B.A. from Fordham University.
Isaac Barchas has agreed to serve on our board of directors. Mr. Barchas is the President and Chief Executive Officer of Research Bridge Partners (“RBP”), a socially-driven investment company, which he founded in 2016. RBP uses both concessionary and nonconcessionary investment to create startup companies based on university research and advance those companies into the venture capital markets. Prior to founding RBP, Mr. Barchas led the Austin Technology Incubator (“ATI”) at The University of Texas at Austin from 2006 to 2016. ATI’s Clean Energy Incubator was the first university clean tech incubation program in the United States. During Mr. Barchas’ leadership, ATI companies raised over $1 billion in the capital markets. Mr. Barchas joined the university from McKinsey & Co., where he worked in the Chicago, Sydney, Auckland, and Dallas offices, from 1996 to 2006 and served on the leadership teams of McKinsey’s North American Healthcare Practice and Global Organization Practice. Mr. Barchas has served on multiple private company boards and on philanthropic boards including Pecan Street Inc., the largest analytically-focused clean energy and climate data consortium in the United States, where he was a founding board member. Mr. Barchas earned a J.D. (honors) and M.A. (Century Fellowship) from The University of Chicago. He received an A.B. from Stanford University (honors and Phi Beta Kappa).
Justin Kelly has agreed to serve on our board of directors. Mr. Kelly is currently the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Investment Officer of Winslow Capital Management, LLC (“Winslow Capital”), Nuveen’s center of excellence for growth investing. Mr. Kelly also serves as lead portfolio manager on the firm’s flagship U.S. Large Cap Growth Strategy. Mr. Kelly has been with Winslow Capital for over two decades and has transformed the firm from a single strategy, niche investment firm to a thought leader globally in growth equity investing with four strategies. Prior to joining Winslow Capital in 1999, Mr. Kelly was an equity analyst at Investment Advisors in Minneapolis. Prior to that, Mr. Kelly worked at Prudential Bache, from 1993 to 1996 as Investment Banker, and Salomon Brothers, from 1996 to 1997 as Investment Banker. Mr. Kelly earned a B.S. in Finance/Investments from Babson College.
Our management team will be supported by NPG, a technology and business services focused private equity firm based in Wayzata, Minnesota. NPG has considerable experience investing in ESG related portfolio companies with community impact, workplace diversity and integrity, and environmental resource management acting as cornerstones to key investment decisions. NPG has offset its carbon footprint to net zero, achieving CarbonNeutral® status. The partners of NPG have been involved in acquisitions, financings and advisory transactions totaling over $20 billion in transaction value and have significant experience investing across a variety of economic cycles and a track record of identifying high-quality assets, businesses and management teams with significant resources, capital and optimization potential. We believe that we will benefit from NPG’s prior experience.”
PRESS RELEASE
ESG RESOURCES
CEO BREIF INTERVIEW
https://www.greenspac.com/ceo-scott-leonard-explains-why-now-is-the-right-time-for-a-spac/

SPAC Risks:
SPAC’s tend to be 50/50 after merger IMOPotential EV or ESG bubble might be formingDoes anyone have an example of a SPAC in the last 15 years (or later) that has liquidated and didn’t pay out?(I honestly haven’t looked)I see 0.1% risk in SPAC shares/units long term (thanks to escrow)
Final Thoughts:
Future (disruptive) ESG companies (like PureCycle) might want to try and avoid previous mistakes (like UBER) by going the public via the SPAC route... Its kind of a thing these days (thank you Covid) and helps them to make more money faster, price their deal properly/more efficiently and gain (those all-important wall street) connections – I see you SPAQ .. also anyone else see spacs drop in the WSJ?
Completely speculative possible ESG SPAC’s – IPOC/IPOB, HCAC/JIH, GMHI/NPA, SBE/ALUS/TDAC, **KCAC/**SSPK, or JWS/PTSH? Who else are we missing?? Who else will pivot like SHLL, SPAQ, HCCH or get a BlackRock PIPE??
Disclaimer: This is not investment advice and I have positions in some of the above.
TLDR: ESG trend is here to stay and SOAC is a ESG SPAC with great a great team
**check out the discord link for more info, resources and tools**
submitted by GhostfacexProdigy to SPACs [link] [comments]


2020.06.26 18:32 corvidlover13 Article in NY Times about Rosie Lee Tompkins

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/06/26/arts/design/rosie-lee-tompkins-quilts.html
There is a paywall, but they let you view 5 free articles a month. Here is the text of the article (it's a long but lovely read), but if you possibly can, go look at the pictures of the quilts.
"In 1997 I walked into the Berkeley Art Museum to be greeted by a staggering sight: an array of some 20 quilts unlike any I had ever seen. Their unbridled colors, irregular shapes and nearly reckless range of textiles telegraphed a tremendous energy and the implacable ambition, and confidence, of great art.
They were crafted objects that transcended quilting, with the power of painting. This made them canon-busting, and implicitly subversive. They gave off a tangible heat. I left in a state of shock — I knew I had been instantly converted but I didn’t yet know to what.
In memory the show became a jubilant fugue of small squares of velvet in deep gemstone hues, dancing with not much apparent order yet impeccably arranged for full effect. My first thought was of Paul Klee, that kind of love-at-first-sight allure, seductive hand-madeness and unfiltered accessibility, only bigger and stronger.
The planets had aligned: I’d happened on the first solo show anywhere of Rosie Lee Tompkins, an exemplar of one of the country’s premier visual traditions: African-American improvisational quilt-making — an especially innovative branch of a medium that reaches back to African textiles and continues to thrive.
Tompkins’s work, I came to realize, was one of the century’s major artistic accomplishments, giving quilt-making a radical new articulation and emotional urgency. I felt I had been given a new standard against which to measure contemporary art.
Rosie Lee Tompkins was a pseudonym, I would learn, adopted by a fiercely private, deeply religious woman, who as her work received more and more attention, was almost never photographed or interviewed. She was born Effie Mae Martin in rural Gould, Ark., on Sept. 9, 1936. At the time of the show, she was 61 and living in nearby Richmond, Calif., just north of Berkeley.
Over the years, I would be repeatedly blown away by work that was at once rigorous and inclusive. Tompkins was an inventive colorist whose generous use of black added to the gravity of her efforts. She worked in several styles and all kinds of fabrics, using velvets — printed, panne, crushed — to gorgeous effect, in ways that rivaled oil paint. But she was also adept with denim, faux furs, distressed T-shirts and fabrics printed with the faces of the Kennedy brothers, Martin Luther King Jr. and Magic Johnson.
A typical Tompkins quilt had an original, irresistible aliveness. One of her narrative works was 14 feet across, the size of small billboard. It appropriated whole dish towels printed with folkloric scenes, parts of a feed sack, and, most prominently, bright bold chunks of the American flag. What else? Bits of embroidery, Mexican textiles, fabrics printed with flamenco dancers and racing cars, hot pink batik and, front and center, a slightly cheesy manufactured tapestry of Jesus Christ. It seemed like a map of the melting pot of American culture and politics.
While works like this one relate to Pop Art, others had the power of abstraction. One of her signature velvets might be described as a “failed checkerboard.” Its little squares of black and dark green, lime and blue, slide continuously in and out of register, creating the illusion of ceaseless motion, like a fractal model of rippling water.
This surface action, I discovered, reflected her constant improvisation: Tompkins began by cutting her squares (or triangles or bars) freehand, never measuring or using a template, and intuitively changed the colors, shapes and size of her fabric fragments, making her compositions seem to expand or contract. As a result her quilts could be deliriously akimbo, imbued with a mesmerizing pull of differences and inconsistencies that communicates impassioned attention and care.
“I think it’s because I love them so much that God let me see all these different colors,” Tompkins once said of her patchworks. “I hope they spread a lot of love.”
That 1997 Berkeley show — was my first Rosie Lee Tompkins moment. Organized by Lawrence Rinder, the museum’s chief curator, it helped boost her reputation beyond the quilt world centered in and around San Francisco. This September many more people will have similar moments of their own, and feel the love implicit in her extraordinary achievement, when “Rosie Lee Tompkins: A Retrospective” — the artist’s largest show yet — opens its doors once more at the Berkeley Art Museum for a run through Dec. 20. (It debuted briefly in February before the coronavirus lockdown.) The museum’s website currently offers a robust online display and 70-minute virtual tour.
This exhibition, again organized by Mr. Rinder, the museum’s director until March, with Elaine Y. Yau, a postdoctoral curatorial fellow, marks the end of a 35-year saga. Though it began with Effie Mae Martin, it came to include a small, nervous collector named Eli Leon, who met her in 1985, fell in love with her quilts and those of many other African-American creators in and around Richmond — and devoted half his life to acquiring and studying, exhibiting and writing about their work.

The Saga of Effie and Eli and Rosie Lee

Rosie Lee Tompkins grew up the eldest of 15 half-siblings, picking cotton and piecing quilts for her mother. In 1958 she joined the postwar phase of the Great Migration, relocating to Milwaukee and then Chicago, eventually settling in Richmond, Calif., a busy port and shipyard that had become a destination for thousands of African-Americans who moved out of the South, many bringing with them singular aspects of rural culture.
She studied nursing, and for the next two decades or so worked in convalescent homes, a job she is said to have loved. During this time she married and divorced Ellis Howard, raised five children and stepchildren and started to make quilts to sell at the area’s many flea markets, along with other wares. She even had a printed business card that offered “Crazy Quilts and Pillows All Sizes.” By the late 1970s, according to the current exhibition’s catalog, she was earning as much as $400 a weekend from sales and was able to quit her nursing job.
The flea markets were a quilter’s paradise in the 1970s, ’80s and beyond, places where the necessary materials were plentiful and cheap: printed, embroidered and sequined fabrics, beaded trim, crocheted doilies, needlepoint, buttons, secondhand clothing, costume jewelry — all of which, and more, Tompkins incorporated into her art.
The area was also paradise for quilt collectors, one of whom was Eli, born in the Bronx in 1935 and trained as a psychologist, whose collecting instincts verged on hoarding. Eli had also worked as a graphic designer and sometime in the late 1970s, after years of haunting the area’s flea markets and yard sales for whatever appealed, he zeroed in on the visual vibrancy of quilts, evolving into a self-taught scholar. He lived frugally in a small bungalow in Oakland that was eventually packed to its rafters with quilts, except for his dining room and kitchen. These were menageries of previous flea-market obsessions, artifacts of between-the-wars popular culture — crafts, milk glass, dolls, cookie tins, but also meat grinders, toasters and enamel saucepans — mostly in the jade greens.
Around 1980, Eli turned his gimlet eye to searching out African-American quilts and interviewing their makers. At flea markets he would approach anyone selling anything to ask if they knew of quilts for sale. One day he asked a woman selling kitchen utensils — Effie Mae Howard. He would later write, “She was evasive, but eventually let on that she herself dabbled in the craft.”
Thereafter he bought everything she would sell him, sometimes going into debt to do so. They were the jewels in the crown of a collection of African-American quilts that would eventually number in the thousands.
Rosie Lee and Eli were an odd pair, both willful, defensive and fragile. Each had survived a nervous breakdown or two; Rosie Lee’s, coming sometime in the late ’70s, deepened the spirituality and intensity of her work, making it more than ever a haven from the world. Eli’s first came early, after his wife of five years left him. (They had met as students at Reed College and married, even though they both knew he was gay.)
Eli believed Rosie Lee was a great artist and at one point made notes about illustrating an essay about her with works by Michelangelo, Mondrian and Picasso. The quilter felt she was an instrument of God and saw her work as an expression of her faith and his designs. “If people like my work,” she once told Eli, “that means the love of Jesus Christ is still shining through what I’m doing.”
In photographs, Rosie Lee looks tall, of regal posture. Eli’s devotion to her work made him a supplicant, willing to do anything — bring her fabrics and art books — to help with her work. He also wanted to promote it, devising Rosie Lee Tompkins as her “art” name, to preserve her privacy. Some people thought she might not exist, that Eli had made the quilts himself.
His promotional efforts, however, did not involve much selling: Eli was almost congenitally incapable of parting with any of his quilts, or anything else, that he accumulated. But within a year he began building a résumé of articles, exhibitions and lectures about the importance of African-American quilts as well as their frequent emphasis on improvisation and their links to African textiles. In doing so, he contributed to the national awareness of quilts of all kinds by African-Americans, which have been increasingly studied and exhibited since around 1980, thanks to the combined influences of the civil rights movement, feminism and multiculturalism.
His 1987 show, “Who’d a Thought It: Improvisation in African-American Quiltmaking,” included a catalog essay by the well-known Africanist Robert Ferris Thompson alongside his own. It opened at the San Francisco Craft and Folk Art Museum in 1987 and, over the next decade, toured to 25 museums — including the American Craft Museum in New York City in 1989. (It was written about in the Home Section of The New York Times, but significantly not in the Art pages.)
Eli made three trips to the South — on a Guggenheim grant in one instance — to meet the relatives of quilters he knew and collected around Oakland. In Arkansas he visited Rosie Lee’s mother, Sadie Lee Dale, and bought one of her quilts, too.
Mr. Rinder’s Rosie Lee Tompkins conversion took place in a show of black and white quilts by African-Americans that Eli organized in 1996 at the Richmond Art Center. The textile of hers that jumped out at Mr. Rinder is impressive even in photographs. Made from a family of velvets, it resembles Op-Art, only softer, less mechanical and altogether more appealing.
Eager for more information about the artist, Mr. Rinder called up Eli, who responded, “You like that piece? You should see what she does with color!”

Beyond Labels

Though I never met Tompkins, her quilts became stuck in my mind, sometimes at the forefront, sometimes in a corner. I mentioned her work in my writing when I could. Initially she seemed to belong to the first rank of outsider artists who began reshaping the American art canon around 1980, such geniuses as Martín Ramírez, Bill Traylor and Joseph Yoakum. Like Rosie Lee, they were artists of color. (Others, like Henry Darger and James Castle, were white.) She was the only female artist I knew who seemed of their stature — perhaps beyond it — which was doubly exhilarating.
But the “self-taught” or “outsider” labels were inaccurate for quilters. Effie Mae Martin had grown up as her mother’s apprentice in a kind of atelier: a small town full of female friends and relatives who quilted, the older ones showing and telling the younger ones how it was done. More and more I saw her as a great American artist, no qualifier needed.
She reminded me of George Ohr, the unparalleled turn-of-the-century potter from Biloxi, Miss., whose his work was rediscovered in the early 1970s. Ohr’s precariously thin-walled vessels, unlikely shapes and inspired glazing shared a kind of bravura with Tompkins’s works. They both possessed an extraordinary skill and idiosyncratic abandon that creates a new sense of the possibilities of the hand, visual wit and beauty in any medium.
As with Ohr, Tompkins’s work triggered a kind of joy on first encounter. You could hear it in the reviews of the 2002 Whitney Biennial, which Mr. Rinder organized during his stint there as curator of contemporary art. He put three of her quilts in the show, one of which the Whitney acquired.
After a final decade that was a nearly vertical trajectory, hurtling toward art world fame, Rosie Lee Tompkins died suddenly, at 70, in December 2006, in her home. There were obituaries in The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The Washington Post, The San Francisco Chronicle and The Boston Globe.
Then, in 2013, Eli began to leave me urgent phone messages: “You have to come out here. I need help,” his thin reedy voice said. He had received a diagnosis of dementia, and was worried about what would become of his collection, which he wanted to keep intact. It was overflowing not only his house, but also a small, climate-controlled annex he had built behind it.
I visited him that fall, to be stunned all over again when Eli and Jenny Hurth — his exemplary friend, assistant, fellow quilt-lover and, after 2011, his most constant caregiver — unveiled a succession of Tompkins velvets, clipping them to the molding above the double doors between his living and dining rooms. I listened as Eli spoke about Tompkins, her life and work, and also his. (Eli was not shy about his considerable brilliance.) Wedging myself into the narrow gaps between the shelves of folded quilts in the annex, I got an inkling of how much I hadn’t seen.
With this visit, I joined a scattered group of individuals who had been seduced by Eli’s dedication but mainly by his collection, and were now concerned for its fate. In addition to Mr. Rinder and Ms. Hurth, it included Elsa Longhauser, then director of the Santa Monica Museum of Art (recently renamed the Institute of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles).
No one quite knew the actual size of his holdings — Eli provided only the vaguest of numbers when asked — but it seemed immense, judging from the two- and three-foot-high stacks of quilts that had to be navigated to get through his darkened living room.
I saw Eli once more, in 2016, when I went to Berkeley to review the inauguration of the museum’s new building. His dementia was much further along but he smiled as Ms. Hurth introduced me to another dimension of Tompkins’s creativity: the words and numbers that she awkwardly whipstitched to her quilts, adding a layer of personal meaning in a spidery script that sometimes resembled graffiti done with a Rapidograph. She signed nearly everything with her real name, Effie, or some combination of Effie Mae Martin Howard, and often added her nearly palindromic date of birth, 9.6.36, or the birth dates of her sons, her parents and other relatives she wanted to honor.
Sometimes the embroidery reflected her daily Bible reading, including the Gospels, as did her addition of appliqué crosses. Occasionally she stitched the addresses of the places she had lived, and Eli’s home. The information suggested talismanic properties, perhaps prayers. She also said they were meant to improve the relationships between the people evoked by the numbers. In her “Three Sixes” quilts — inspired by the sixes in the birth dates of three family members — she acknowledged them by limiting her palette to three colors: orange, yellow and purple.
Eli died on March 6, 2018, at 82, in an assisted-living home. To raise money for his care, Ms. Hurth oversaw multiple yard sales for the contents of his house — except the quilts. The question of their destiny hung uneasily in the air.

Eli’s Surprise

Then, several months later, came the amazing news: Eli had bequeathed his entire quilt collection to the Berkeley Art Museum, a tribute to the early advocacy of Mr. Rinder. The final count of the Eli Leon Bequest was 3,100 quilts by over 400 artists.
Tompkins — represented by more than 680 quilts, quilt tops, appliqués, clothing and objects — is undoubtedly the star. Laverne Brackens, a well-known fourth-generation quilter in Texas, runs a close second, with around 300 quilts in the collection.
While fraught with obligations regarding care, storage, display and access that few museums, large or small, would take on, the bequest automatically transforms the Berkeley museum, and its parent institution, the University of California, Berkeley, into an unparalleled center for the study of African-American quilts. Interest and support are coming forth: The museum has already received a $500,000 grant from the Luce Foundation for a follow-up survey of Eli’s entire gift in 2022, which should be every bit as surprising as this one.
On the plane out to San Francisco in February, I read the exhibition catalog cover to cover. The organizers’ excellent essays included Mr. Rinder vividly relating Tompkins’s use of improvisation to the innovations of Ornette Coleman and his “no-hold-barred free-jazz sensibility.” (Although he notes that she was an opera fan who listened to disco while doing her work.)
Ms. Yau provides the foundational account of Tompkins’s life, her working methods and the role of family ties and religion. And Horace D. Ballard, a former divinity student who is now a curator and art historian at Williams College and its museum, writes that Tompkins “lived in service of a higher calling,” tying her efforts to sacred music, texts and architecture.
But even they couldn’t prepare me for the visual force of the 62 quilts and five assemblage-like memory jugs, dating from the 1970s to 2004. Spread out in the museum’s sky-lighted galleries, the work’s beauty is more insistent than ever.
Because of Tompkins’s improvisation, a close look doesn’t reveal refinement or rote technique — skill for skill’s sake. It shows small individual adjustments made and liberties taken, almost granular expressions of imagination and freedom. In addition, the fabrics — variously elegant, every day and ersatz — bring a lot with them, not just color and texture, but also manufacturing techniques and social connotations. Do you think that polyester double knit might look cheap used in a quilt? Think again. Cotton flannel and beaded and sequined silk crepe might not be a winning combination? Likewise. Such physical realism is all but impossible to achieve with paint.
A measure of Tompkins’s ambition is that she preferred to concentrate on the ‘free-jazz’ aspect of her work: piecing the quilt tops. Other women finished the quilts by adding a layer of wadding and the back, a standard practice. Most of the pieces in this show were quilted by Irene Bankhead, whose work Eli also collected.
The show begins by demonstrating Tompkins’s unusual range and versatility, juxtaposing quilts in smoldering velvets with a medley of found denims — a homage to her grandfather and other farmers in her family.
A remarkable early quilt from the 1970s is pieced almost entirely of blocks of found fabric embroidered with flowers — old and new, machine- and handmade. They bow to an ancient craft and, at the quilt’s center, a spare image of the risen Christ blessing. Above and to the right a circle of twisted bands and leaves suggests both a crown of thorns and a laurel wreath. Was Tompkins aware of this possible reading? Perhaps, but the main point is that her work is open to the viewer’s response and interpretation.
As an artist, Tompkins may have taken improvisation further than other quilters. She all but abandoned pattern for an inspired randomness with an emphasis on serial disruptions that constantly divert or startle the eye — like the badge of a California prison guard sewn to an otherwise conventional crazy quilt. Another narrative quilt is more like a wall-hanging, or maybe a street mural, pieced with large fragments of black and white fabric and T-shirts printed with images of African-American athletes and political leaders. Rows of crosses made from men’s ties evoke the pressures of succeeding while black in America.
Her big velvet quilts — the exultant heart of the show — are most often disrupted by dramatic shifts in color and scale. In one, several blocks of stark black and white triangles break through an expanse of rich colors like icebergs in a dark sea. The opposite corner features a distinctive Tompkins device: a small framed area composed of tiny squares that creates a quilt-within-a-quilt — which reads as a witty self-reference to the quilting process, and pulls us into the intimacy of making.
One of Tompkins’s most spectacular velvets is edged with these framed mini-quilts, which surround an enormous field of blue velvets that creates a kind of van Gogh night sky; they can read as small painted side panels on an altarpiece. Some feature abutting triangles that suggest desert landscapes and pyramids, perhaps the Flight into Egypt. (In the catalog, Mr. Ballard resonantly likens the field of blues to the vault of a cathedral and the borders to clerestory windows.)
There are many museum exhibitions on lockdown in the United States right now. They closed in one world and will reopen in a very different one, and the relevance of “Rosie Lee Tompkins: A Retrospective” has only expanded in the hiatus. The sheer joy of her best quilts cannot be overstated. They come at us with the force and sophistication of so-called high art, but are more democratic, without any intimidation factor.
Her work is simply further evidence of the towering African-American achievements that permeate the culture of this country. A deeper understanding and knowledge of these, especially where art is concerned, must be part of the necessary rectification and healing that America faces.
Tompkins seems to have been an artist of singular greatness, but who knows what further revelations — including the upcoming survey of the Eli Leon Bequest — are in store. The field of improvisational quilting by African-American women is not small, but beyond the great quilters of Gee’s Bend, Ala., and a few others, their work is not widely known. Rosie Lee Tompkins’s version of what Eli Leon called “flexible patterning” may have been more extreme than anyone else’s. Or perhaps not. It would be gratifying to learn that she did not act alone."
submitted by corvidlover13 to quilting [link] [comments]


2020.06.17 11:47 OccultVolva A brief overview of types, tools, herbs, and ways to cleanse a space for ritual ceremonial from the Pagan past.

(posted this in pagan sub but thought you guys will like it too)
I cannot cover everything (all pagan religions, types or rites, or in depth links other than few wikis) and likely some mistakes in there, but since ‘smudging’ debate keeps popping up I thought it might be a good time to highlight some of the terms or types of scents and cleansing methods used in the past we can easily revive today for Paganaism. Ones that can be less problematic in terms for Indigenous cultural survival. A starting point for anyone who wants to add more variety to their practise than herb bundles alone or looking for the type of old words they can use. Or a starting point to research further for anyone looking to blog about the topics or these types of tools or rituals. Some of the below feature fire and smoke and some don't.
Ancient Greek/Hellenism
A thymiaterion (from Ancient Greek: θυμιατήριον from θυμιάειν thymiaein "to smoke"; plural thymiateria) is a type of censer or incense burner, used in the Mediterranean region since antiquity for spiritual and religious purposes and especially in religious ceremonies.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thymiaterion
Thymiateria were used in antiquity to burn incense during religious rituals such as sacrifices or offerings to the gods. Carved from marble, this thymiaterion is composed of three parts: a stemmed foot, a deep receptacle, and a lid. The deep bowl, which could have held a large amount of costly incense, rests on the spreading tray-like top of the tall foot. The lip of the bowl is scored along the edges to suggest an organic plant pattern. The same pattern is repeated on the domed lid, which is decorated with small ridges and perforated at regular intervals to allow the scented smoke to escape. The top of the lid is flat and undecorated, but a separately-made finial may originally have been attached. The sharp-edged, angular form of the thymiaterion with its decorative ridges imitates metal vessels. Traces of red paint remain on the foot and lid suggesting that the vessel was originally brightly painted.
http://www.getty.edu/art/collection/objects/32131/unknown-maker-thymiaterion-and-lid-greek-south-italian-or-sicilian-4th-century-bc/
Herbs
The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing it was a source of courage. The spread of thyme throughout Europe was thought to be due to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[2] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[3] In this period, women also often gave knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves, as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals, as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[4]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thyme#History
Greece: the Latin name for mint, Mentha, comes from an ancient Greek myth. The story goes that a water nymph named Minthe had an affair with Hades, the god of the underworld. Hades’ wife, Persephone, was not happy about this and she used her powers to transform the water nymph into a low-growing plant that would be trampled by passersby. Hades could not undo the transformation, but he did give the plant a beautiful fragrance so that when Minthe was trampled, her true beauty would appear in the form of the aroma of mint.
In ancient Greece, mint was used in funerary rituals along with rosemary and other aromatic herbs. The use of mint in funerals and association with death and the afterlife probably had practical reasons and came about because the strong smell of the herb would cover up any decaying odor from the body of the deceased.
https://gardentherapy.ca/herbal-histories/
Plants and herbs that appear in myth
https://www.theoi.com/Flora1.html
Kemetic/Ancient Egypt
Kyphi
Kyphi is a compound incense that was used in Ancient Egypt for religious and medical purposes.
Kyphi is latinized from Greek κυ̑φι for Ancient Egyptian "kap-t", incense, from "kap", to perfume, to cense, to heat, to burn, to ignite.[1][2] The word root also exists in Indo-European languages, with a similar meaning, like in Sanskrit कपि (kapi) "incense", Greek καπνός "smoke", and Latin vapor.
The manufacture of kyphi involves blending and boiling the ingredients in sequence. According to Galen, the result was rolled into balls and placed on hot coals to give a perfumed smoke; it was also drunk as a medicine for liver and lung ailments.[7]
See wiki for full ingredients
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyphi
There is also a type of incense known as jb (referred to on the Stele of Sekerkhabau from Saqqara). The name was written using the hieroglyph for kid (a young male goat) leading some to suggest that it was based on musk. According to Plutarch the Ancient Egyptians burned frankincense in the morning, myrrh at midday and Kyphi (Kapet) in the evening. In addition certain gods were associated with specific types of incense (for example, Hathor was strongly associated with myrrh) and certain types of incense were used for specific ceremonies.
Incense ingredients were either ground and thrown on hot coals or mixed with dried fruit (such as raisins or dates) and formed into small pellets to be burned.
https://ancientegyptonline.co.uk/incenseperfume/
Video Burning of Kyphi (Ancient Incense)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jENOZqJQoaY&feature=emb_title
Mesopotamia/Babylonia
The experience of aromatic oils was not just for the Gods, it was felt by the people in and around the spaces where they were burned. This was particularly true within Assyrian culture in northern Mesopotamia. Kiersten Neumann, a Curator and Research Associate at the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute, discussed the raw materials connected to aromatics within Assyrian temples: cedar, cypress, juniper, boxwood and fir (terebinth). Service to the gods was performed by elite personnel within the temple. The Arabian peninsula was the principle place to acquire these spices and incenses. Arabic caravans used camels that traveled along a set trade route that then sold these precious substances to those who wished to burn them.
https://www.forbes.com/sites/drsarahbond/2017/06/26/recreating-the-aroma-of-the-ancient-city-incense-and-perfume-in-the-ancient-mediterranean/#64085282586a
Takpirtu
Takpirtu or Takpertu, inscribed tak-pir-tú and as a gloss to the term šu-gur-gur-meš, and literally meaning “wiping,” from kupurru,[1] “to wipe, rub,” or more generally ““to perform a wiping rite,” were Mesopotamian purification rituals whose oldest attestations go back to the Old Babylonian period. It was an integral part of the Bīt rimki and Bīt salā’ mê rituals and may have been a cleansing rite in its own right as it is listed separately in the Exorcists Manual, perhaps in the form of tak-pir-tú nussētiq, burnt offerings.[2]
Its earliest appearance seems to have been at Mari. Middle Babylonian attestation comes in the form of two references to the supply of grain or flour for the ceremony in temple administrative tablets from Kassite Nippur.[3] In later neo-Assyrian and neo-Babylonian periods it was used for the spiritual cleansing of a field or a building, especially in the temple of the moon god Sîn in Uruk, but also in the context of a person, such as a sick person or the king, a type of cleansing ceremony was accompanied by a liḫšu, whispered prayer, “By the life of Anu and Enlil they are conjured,”[4] or conjuration, "butting evil." Dough was wiped over the thigh of the subject, a scapegoat was sacrificed or carcass of a sheep was used to purify the cella of the temple,[5] which was afterwards cast into the river along with the zisurrû, “magic circle of flour,” and garakku-brazier, a black and white cord.[6]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Takpirtu
Mîs-pî
Mîs-pî, inscribed KA-LUḪ.Ù.DA and meaning “washing of the mouth,” is an ancient Mesopotamian ritual and incantation series for the cultic induction or vivification of a newly manufactured divine idol. It involved around eleven stages: in the city, countryside and temple, the workshop, a procession to the river, then beside the river bank, a procession to the orchard, in reed huts and tents in the circle of the orchard, to the gate of the temple, the niche of the sanctuary and finally, at the quay of the Apsû, accompanied by invocations to the nine great gods, the nine patron gods of craftsmen, and assorted astrological bodies
The rituals are for the consecration of a cultic image, a statue formed from a wooden core encased in gold and/or silver, decorated with inlaid precious stones, and dressed in robes. They involve the “washing of the mouth” (mîs-pî proper) on the first day to cleanse the statue of all traces of human contamination in the production of the idol, and the “opening of the mouth” (inscribed KA.DUḪ.Ù.DA, Akkadian: pit pî) performed with syrup, ghee, cedar and cypress on the second to bring it to life, sacraments which may be related to the pit uzni, “ear-opening” ceremony. “On this day be present: for this statue which stands before you ceremoniously grant him the destiny that his mouth may eat, that his ears might hear.”[3] The rituals facilitated the idol taking on the persona of the deity, awakening the supernatural force within it, and enabling it to see, act, eat and drink the offerings and smell the incense:[4] ṣalmu annû ina la pīt pî qutrinna ul iṣṣin akala ul ikkal mêul išatti, “this statue cannot smell incense without the “Opening of the Mouth” ceremony, it cannot eat food nor drink water.”[3] Four exemplars from Hellenic Uruk do not include the pit pî stage, but instead introduce a burnt offering of a brushwood fire, lamentations recited by a kalû-priest and the presence of the monarch. Its application seems to have spread to encompass other objects, such as a ceremonial torch, the hide of a bull which is to cover a lilissu- or kettledrum,[5] the apotropaic figurines used in the Šēp lemutti ritual, the divinatory bag of the barû-priest, the mouth of the river to abate its torrent, and even the jewels adorning a king’s chariot. It seems that the process of mouth-washing was intended to prepare a person or thing for contact with the divine https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%AEs-p%C3%AE
Pagan Heathen and Old English
To hallow is "to make holy or sacred, to sanctify or consecrate, to venerate".[1] The adjective form hallowed, as used in The Lord's Prayer, means holy, consecrated, sacred, or revered.[2] The noun form hallow, as used in Hallowtide, is a synonym of the word saint.[3][4][5]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hallow
The noun is from the Old English adjective hālig, nominalised as se hālga "the holy man". The Gothic word for "holy" is either hailags or weihaba, weihs. "To hold as holy" or "to become holy" is weihnan, "to make holy, to sanctify" is weihan. Holiness or sanctification is weihiþa. Old English, like Gothic, had a second term of similar meaning, wēoh "holy", with a substantive wīh or wīg, Old High German wīh or wīhi (Middle High German wîhe, Modern German Weihe). The Nordendorf fibula has wigiþonar, interpreted as wīgi-þonar "holy Donar" or "sacred to Donar". Old Norse vé is a type of shrine. The weihs group is cognate to Latin victima, an animal dedicated to the gods and destined to be sacrificed.
Fire in general used to hallow or sanctify an area
In Eyrbyggja saga (bit not in Landnamabok) it is recorded Poroflr carried fire round the land he claimed. This ritual was probably also performed in order to sanctify his new homeland. It is possible that this land was related in one or another sense to the Hof building. This may be supported by other Old Norse texts.
https://books.google.ie/books?id=CSdzCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA293&lpg=PA293&dq=old+norse+claiming+land+a+place+with+fire&source=bl&ots=19Ij13Nw4l&sig=ACfU3U3YCWyr8_kDFKYwrhler585n49GRw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwis0-KgtojqAhXUlFwKHY9gCrwQ6AEwAHoECAYQAQ#v=onepage&q=old%20norse%20claiming%20land%20a%20place%20with%20fire&f=false
The saga begins with Gotland being discovered by a man named Þieluar (Tjalve) (Gutnish: Tjelvar). He was a mythical figure who shows up twice in the Prose Edda and once in Gutasaga. Gotland is under a spell and under water during the day and out of water only during the night, a spell that is broken by Þieluar lighting a fire on the Island. Þieluar's son Hafþi (Havde) and his wife Vitastjerna (Gutnish: Hwitastierna) had three sons named Graip, Gute and Gunfjaun, the ancestors of the Gutes. After Havde's and Vitastjerna's first night together, she had a dream about three snakes entwined in her bosom. This was interpreted as a symbol that all things are connected in circles and that they would have three sons. The subject is depicted on some of the picture stones on Gotland.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gutasaga#Modern_Gotland
‘To Smoke’ possible words if you use smoke in heathen rituals
Reocan From Proto-Germanic *reukaną, whence also Old Frisian riāka, Old High German riohhan, Old Norse rjúka. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/reocan#Old_English
Reek From Middle English rek, reke (“smoke”), from Old English rēc, rīec, from Proto-Germanic *raukiz (compare West Frisian reek, riik, Dutch rook, Low German Röök, German Rauch, Danish røg, Norwegian Bokmål røyk), from Proto-Indo-European *rowgi- (compare Lithuanian rū̃kti (“to smoke”), rū̃kas (“smoke, fog”), Albanian regj (“to tan”)).[1] https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/reek
and
however, a term with old english roots that conveys the proper meaning of smoke cleansing in witchcraft: rēcan. pronounced similarly to the modern word “reek,” the term rēcan means: “to fumigate, expose to smoke, cause to emit smoke, or burn as incense.” closely related, the old english word rēocan means: “to emit vapor, steam, or smoke.” the term later evolved into the middle english word reken, meaning “to emit smoke.” while the word was not exclusively used to refer to foul smells, it lost much of its original meaning as it evolved into the modern day “reek,” which is now associated only with unpleasant stenches. given its old english roots and lackluster definition, the term rēcan makes an eloquent and appropriate moniker for the smoke cleansing performed in non-native practices of witchcraft and paganism.
https://musingsofmagick.wordpress.com/2018/06/18/recaning-smoke-cleansing-in-witchcraft/
Nine Herb Charm (herb ideas)
The "Nine Herbs Charm" is an Old English charm recorded in the tenth-century CE[1] Anglo-Saxon medical compilation known as Lacnunga, which survives on in the manuscript London, British Library, Harley 585.[2] The charm is intended for the treatment of poisoning and infection by a preparation of nine herbs. The numbers nine and three, significant in Germanic paganism and later Germanic folklore, are mentioned frequently within the charm.[2] The poem contains references to Christian and English Pagan elements, including a mention of the major Germanic god Woden.
https://spitalfieldslife.com/2018/05/15/the-nine-herbs-charm/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nine_Herbs_Charm
Runes
‘May Thor Hallow’ > ‘Thor Vigi’ "þur uiki" > "Þórr vigi" > "Thor vigi" > “May Thor Hallow” in runes
‘ siþi þur’ > ‘ Siði Þorr‘ > ‘May Thórr safeguard’ ‘May Thor protect.’ ‘May Thor work magic’ possible translations
Sources
https://skaldic.abdn.ac.uk/db.php?id=16064&if=runic&table=mss
http://dro.dur.ac.uk/1053/1/1053.pdf
https://utrianlax.tumblr.com/post/47034486631/rune-stone-s%C3%B6-140-korpbron-jursta-%C3%A4gor-ludgo/amp Picture of it
Apple Wassail old rites but later by ancient standards for blessing crops and trees
The Apple Wassail is a traditional form of wassailing practiced in the cider orchards of southern England during the winter. There are many well recorded instances of the Apple Wassail in the early modern period. The first recorded mention was at Fordwich, Kent, in 1585, by which time groups of young men would go between orchards performing the rite for a reward. The practice was sometimes referred to as "howling". On Twelfth Night, men would go with their wassail bowl into the orchard and go about the trees. Slices of bread or toast were laid at the roots and sometimes tied to branches. Cider was also poured over the tree roots. The ceremony is said to "bless" the trees to produce a good crop in the forthcoming season. Among the most famous wassail ceremonies are those in Whimple, Devon and Carhampton, Somerset, both on 17 January.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Wassail
Celtic/Gaelic
Saining
Saining is a Scots word for blessing, protecting or consecrating.[1] Sain is cognate with the Irish and Scottish Gaelic seun and sian and the Old Irish sén - "a protective charm."[2][3][4]
Traditional saining rites may involve water that has been blessed in some fashion, or the smoke from burning juniper, accompanied by spoken prayers or poetry.[2][3] Saining can also refer to less formal customs like making religious signs to protect against evil, such as the sign of the cross. In Shetland, the Scottish folklorist F. Marian McNeil refers to the custom of making the sign of Thor's hammer to sain the goblet that was passed around at New Year's celebrations.[5]
An old Hogmanay (New Year's) custom in the Highlands of Scotland, which has survived to a small extent and seen some degree of revival, is to celebrate Hogmanay with the saining of the household and livestock. Early on New Year's morning, householders drink and then sprinkle 'magic water' from 'a dead and living ford' around the house (a 'dead and living ford' refers to a river ford that is routinely crossed by both the living and the dead). After the sprinkling of the water in every room, on the beds and all the inhabitants, the house is sealed up tight and branches of juniper are set on fire and carried throughout the house and byre. The juniper smoke is allowed to thoroughly fumigate the buildings until it causes sneezing and coughing among the inhabitants. Then all the doors and windows are flung open to let in the cold, fresh air of the new year. The woman of the house then administers 'a restorative' from the whisky bottle, and the household sits down to its New Year breakfast.[6] Saining with juniper was also used in healing rites, where the evil eye was suspected to be the cause of the illness, but it apparently fell out of use by the end of the nineteenth century after a young girl with respiratory problems suffocated due to the amount of smoke that filled the house.[7]
Saining is a common practice in modern traditions based on Scottish folklore, such as blessing and protecting children and other family members.[2][3] While many of the surviving saining prayers and charms are Christian in nature,[2][3] others that focus on the powers of nature are used as part of Gaelic Polytheist ceremonies.[8][9]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saining
Smàladh – Smooring the Hearth Fire
Each household would have a hearth fire over which all the household food would be prepared, and around which the most important aspects of family life would happen. The hearth fire would traditionally have been kept alight all year long in both Scotland and Ireland, with the exception of Bealltainn eve when it was extinguished and then relit from a flame brought from a communal bonfire to ensure health and prosperity upon the household in the coming year.1 It was a matter of pride and superstition not to let the flame die out even in the height of summer, and many households could boast that their hearth had remained alight for several generations – even centuries. If the fire did die out, it was said “the soul goes out of the people of the house.”2
Smooring, therefore – a Scots word usually translated as ‘smothering,’ but perhaps more accurately ‘subduing’3 – was a process by which the fire was dampened down so it would not need tending, and therefore could be left safely alight during the night. In Ireland, it was said that the Good Folk would be displeased if they arrived at a house during the night to find that there was no fire for them.4 In Ireland, a charm such as this was said as the fire was covered with the ashes: “Coiglim an tine seo mar choigleann Críost cáidh; Muire ar mhullach an tí, agus Bríd ina lár; An t-ochtar ainglí is tréine i gCathair na nGrás Ag cumhdach an ti seo ‘s a mhuintir thabhairt slán. I save this fire, as noble Christ saves;
Mary on the top of the house and Brigid in its centre;
the eight strongest angels in Heaven
preserving this house and keeping its people safe.)”6
These days it’s not really possible for most households to keep a flame burning all year round, if at all. As a result, the ritual becomes more symbolic, something to be done as you go up to bed and make sure all the lights and appliances are switched off, for example. The following rune is just one example of a smooring that was recorded by Carmichael. I tend to visualise the sacred three as being the gods, the ancestors and the nature spirits: Smooring the fire
An Trì naomh
A chumhnadh,
A chomhnadh,
A chomraig
An tula,
An taighe,
An teaghlaich,
An oidhche,
An nochd,
O! an oidhche,
An nochd,
Agus gach oidhche,
Gach aon oidhche.
The sacred Three
To save,
To shield,
To surround
The hearth,
The house,
The household,
This eve,
This night,
Oh! this eve,
This night,
And every night,
Each single night.8
http://www.tairis.co.uk/daily-practices/smaladh/
Romania
Sweeping
In Romanian lore, the besom is a potent object which becomes truly magical at special occasions. For example, for Marina’s Day which is celebrated in Romania on July 17, mothers celebrate Marina, the protector of the souls of dead children, by crafting brooms with bristles made out of Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) and offering them to each other alongside flowers, corn, and chicks, and they keep the brooms which they use to sweep their homes and yards. They believe that these special brooms not only sweep away the dirt, but also bad luck and spirits such as the strigoi. Strigoii, which are believed to mount the brooms of the villagers to go to their nocturnal gatherings on the nights of Sângiorz (April 23) and Sântandrei (November 30), were unable to mount the brooms made of Wormwood. The Wormwood broom is also used by the Romanian people to bring someone back home, to sweep away evil forces, and even illness by sweeping around the ill. The broom is also a potent tool against Muma Pădurii (the mother of the forest). For this, the broom of the witch or the disenchantress or the broom of the mother whose child is haunted by the mother of the forest is used during a disenchanting ritual by sweeping the entrance to the home or by placing it next to the child’s bed. In all the spells and charms where the broom is used to repel something evil, the disenchantress or the witch always says to said evil to leave and go far away “because I will sweep you with the broom” (“Că eu cu mătura te-oi mătura”) otherwise.
https://www.theoldcraft.com/2018/05/14/the-witchs-besom-how-to-craft-and-use-your-own-magical-broom/
submitted by OccultVolva to realwitchcraft [link] [comments]


2020.06.17 11:21 OccultVolva A brief overview of types, tools, herbs, and ways to cleanse a space for ritual ceremonial from the Pagan past.

I cannot cover everything (all pagan religions, types or rites, or in depth links other than few wikis) and likely some mistakes in there, but since ‘smudging’ debate keeps popping up I thought it might be a good time to highlight some of the terms or types of scents and cleansing methods used in the past we can easily revive today for Paganaism. Ones that can be less problematic in terms for Indigenous cultural survival. A starting point for anyone who wants to add more variety to their practise than herb bundles alone or looking for the type of old words they can use. Or a starting point to research further for anyone looking to blog about the topics or these types of tools or rituals. Some of the below feature fire and smoke and some don't.
Ancient Greek/Hellenism
A thymiaterion (from Ancient Greek: θυμιατήριον from θυμιάειν thymiaein "to smoke"; plural thymiateria) is a type of censer or incense burner, used in the Mediterranean region since antiquity for spiritual and religious purposes and especially in religious ceremonies.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thymiaterion
Thymiateria were used in antiquity to burn incense during religious rituals such as sacrifices or offerings to the gods. Carved from marble, this thymiaterion is composed of three parts: a stemmed foot, a deep receptacle, and a lid. The deep bowl, which could have held a large amount of costly incense, rests on the spreading tray-like top of the tall foot. The lip of the bowl is scored along the edges to suggest an organic plant pattern. The same pattern is repeated on the domed lid, which is decorated with small ridges and perforated at regular intervals to allow the scented smoke to escape. The top of the lid is flat and undecorated, but a separately-made finial may originally have been attached. The sharp-edged, angular form of the thymiaterion with its decorative ridges imitates metal vessels. Traces of red paint remain on the foot and lid suggesting that the vessel was originally brightly painted.
http://www.getty.edu/art/collection/objects/32131/unknown-maker-thymiaterion-and-lid-greek-south-italian-or-sicilian-4th-century-bc/
Herbs
The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing it was a source of courage. The spread of thyme throughout Europe was thought to be due to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[2] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[3] In this period, women also often gave knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves, as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals, as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[4]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thyme#History
Greece: the Latin name for mint, Mentha, comes from an ancient Greek myth. The story goes that a water nymph named Minthe had an affair with Hades, the god of the underworld. Hades’ wife, Persephone, was not happy about this and she used her powers to transform the water nymph into a low-growing plant that would be trampled by passersby. Hades could not undo the transformation, but he did give the plant a beautiful fragrance so that when Minthe was trampled, her true beauty would appear in the form of the aroma of mint.
In ancient Greece, mint was used in funerary rituals along with rosemary and other aromatic herbs. The use of mint in funerals and association with death and the afterlife probably had practical reasons and came about because the strong smell of the herb would cover up any decaying odor from the body of the deceased.
https://gardentherapy.ca/herbal-histories/
Plants and herbs that appear in myth
https://www.theoi.com/Flora1.html
Kemetic/Ancient Egypt
Kyphi
Kyphi is a compound incense that was used in Ancient Egypt for religious and medical purposes.
Kyphi is latinized from Greek κυ̑φι for Ancient Egyptian "kap-t", incense, from "kap", to perfume, to cense, to heat, to burn, to ignite.[1][2] The word root also exists in Indo-European languages, with a similar meaning, like in Sanskrit कपि (kapi) "incense", Greek καπνός "smoke", and Latin vapor.
The manufacture of kyphi involves blending and boiling the ingredients in sequence. According to Galen, the result was rolled into balls and placed on hot coals to give a perfumed smoke; it was also drunk as a medicine for liver and lung ailments.[7]
See wiki for full ingredients
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyphi
There is also a type of incense known as jb (referred to on the Stele of Sekerkhabau from Saqqara). The name was written using the hieroglyph for kid (a young male goat) leading some to suggest that it was based on musk. According to Plutarch the Ancient Egyptians burned frankincense in the morning, myrrh at midday and Kyphi (Kapet) in the evening. In addition certain gods were associated with specific types of incense (for example, Hathor was strongly associated with myrrh) and certain types of incense were used for specific ceremonies.
Incense ingredients were either ground and thrown on hot coals or mixed with dried fruit (such as raisins or dates) and formed into small pellets to be burned.
https://ancientegyptonline.co.uk/incenseperfume/
Video Burning of Kyphi (Ancient Incense)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jENOZqJQoaY&feature=emb_title
Mesopotamia/Babylonia
The experience of aromatic oils was not just for the Gods, it was felt by the people in and around the spaces where they were burned. This was particularly true within Assyrian culture in northern Mesopotamia. Kiersten Neumann, a Curator and Research Associate at the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute, discussed the raw materials connected to aromatics within Assyrian temples: cedar, cypress, juniper, boxwood and fir (terebinth). Service to the gods was performed by elite personnel within the temple. The Arabian peninsula was the principle place to acquire these spices and incenses. Arabic caravans used camels that traveled along a set trade route that then sold these precious substances to those who wished to burn them.
https://www.forbes.com/sites/drsarahbond/2017/06/26/recreating-the-aroma-of-the-ancient-city-incense-and-perfume-in-the-ancient-mediterranean/#64085282586a
Takpirtu
Takpirtu or Takpertu, inscribed tak-pir-tú and as a gloss to the term šu-gur-gur-meš, and literally meaning “wiping,” from kupurru,[1] “to wipe, rub,” or more generally ““to perform a wiping rite,” were Mesopotamian purification rituals whose oldest attestations go back to the Old Babylonian period. It was an integral part of the Bīt rimki and Bīt salā’ mê rituals and may have been a cleansing rite in its own right as it is listed separately in the Exorcists Manual, perhaps in the form of tak-pir-tú nussētiq, burnt offerings.[2]
Its earliest appearance seems to have been at Mari. Middle Babylonian attestation comes in the form of two references to the supply of grain or flour for the ceremony in temple administrative tablets from Kassite Nippur.[3] In later neo-Assyrian and neo-Babylonian periods it was used for the spiritual cleansing of a field or a building, especially in the temple of the moon god Sîn in Uruk, but also in the context of a person, such as a sick person or the king, a type of cleansing ceremony was accompanied by a liḫšu, whispered prayer, “By the life of Anu and Enlil they are conjured,”[4] or conjuration, "butting evil." Dough was wiped over the thigh of the subject, a scapegoat was sacrificed or carcass of a sheep was used to purify the cella of the temple,[5] which was afterwards cast into the river along with the zisurrû, “magic circle of flour,” and garakku-brazier, a black and white cord.[6]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Takpirtu
Mîs-pî
Mîs-pî, inscribed KA-LUḪ.Ù.DA and meaning “washing of the mouth,” is an ancient Mesopotamian ritual and incantation series for the cultic induction or vivification of a newly manufactured divine idol. It involved around eleven stages: in the city, countryside and temple, the workshop, a procession to the river, then beside the river bank, a procession to the orchard, in reed huts and tents in the circle of the orchard, to the gate of the temple, the niche of the sanctuary and finally, at the quay of the Apsû, accompanied by invocations to the nine great gods, the nine patron gods of craftsmen, and assorted astrological bodies
The rituals are for the consecration of a cultic image, a statue formed from a wooden core encased in gold and/or silver, decorated with inlaid precious stones, and dressed in robes. They involve the “washing of the mouth” (mîs-pî proper) on the first day to cleanse the statue of all traces of human contamination in the production of the idol, and the “opening of the mouth” (inscribed KA.DUḪ.Ù.DA, Akkadian: pit pî) performed with syrup, ghee, cedar and cypress on the second to bring it to life, sacraments which may be related to the pit uzni, “ear-opening” ceremony. “On this day be present: for this statue which stands before you ceremoniously grant him the destiny that his mouth may eat, that his ears might hear.”[3] The rituals facilitated the idol taking on the persona of the deity, awakening the supernatural force within it, and enabling it to see, act, eat and drink the offerings and smell the incense:[4] ṣalmu annû ina la pīt pî qutrinna ul iṣṣin akala ul ikkal mêul išatti, “this statue cannot smell incense without the “Opening of the Mouth” ceremony, it cannot eat food nor drink water.”[3] Four exemplars from Hellenic Uruk do not include the pit pî stage, but instead introduce a burnt offering of a brushwood fire, lamentations recited by a kalû-priest and the presence of the monarch. Its application seems to have spread to encompass other objects, such as a ceremonial torch, the hide of a bull which is to cover a lilissu- or kettledrum,[5] the apotropaic figurines used in the Šēp lemutti ritual, the divinatory bag of the barû-priest, the mouth of the river to abate its torrent, and even the jewels adorning a king’s chariot. It seems that the process of mouth-washing was intended to prepare a person or thing for contact with the divine https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%AEs-p%C3%AE
Pagan Heathen and Old English
To hallow is "to make holy or sacred, to sanctify or consecrate, to venerate".[1] The adjective form hallowed, as used in The Lord's Prayer, means holy, consecrated, sacred, or revered.[2] The noun form hallow, as used in Hallowtide, is a synonym of the word saint.[3][4][5]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hallow
The noun is from the Old English adjective hālig, nominalised as se hālga "the holy man". The Gothic word for "holy" is either hailags or weihaba, weihs. "To hold as holy" or "to become holy" is weihnan, "to make holy, to sanctify" is weihan. Holiness or sanctification is weihiþa. Old English, like Gothic, had a second term of similar meaning, wēoh "holy", with a substantive wīh or wīg, Old High German wīh or wīhi (Middle High German wîhe, Modern German Weihe). The Nordendorf fibula has wigiþonar, interpreted as wīgi-þonar "holy Donar" or "sacred to Donar". Old Norse vé is a type of shrine. The weihs group is cognate to Latin victima, an animal dedicated to the gods and destined to be sacrificed.
Fire in general used to hallow or sanctify an area
In Eyrbyggja saga (bit not in Landnamabok) it is recorded Poroflr carried fire round the land he claimed. This ritual was probably also performed in order to sanctify his new homeland. It is possible that this land was related in one or another sense to the Hof building. This may be supported by other Old Norse texts.
https://books.google.ie/books?id=CSdzCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA293&lpg=PA293&dq=old+norse+claiming+land+a+place+with+fire&source=bl&ots=19Ij13Nw4l&sig=ACfU3U3YCWyr8_kDFKYwrhler585n49GRw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwis0-KgtojqAhXUlFwKHY9gCrwQ6AEwAHoECAYQAQ#v=onepage&q=old%20norse%20claiming%20land%20a%20place%20with%20fire&f=false
The saga begins with Gotland being discovered by a man named Þieluar (Tjalve) (Gutnish: Tjelvar). He was a mythical figure who shows up twice in the Prose Edda and once in Gutasaga. Gotland is under a spell and under water during the day and out of water only during the night, a spell that is broken by Þieluar lighting a fire on the Island. Þieluar's son Hafþi (Havde) and his wife Vitastjerna (Gutnish: Hwitastierna) had three sons named Graip, Gute and Gunfjaun, the ancestors of the Gutes. After Havde's and Vitastjerna's first night together, she had a dream about three snakes entwined in her bosom. This was interpreted as a symbol that all things are connected in circles and that they would have three sons. The subject is depicted on some of the picture stones on Gotland.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gutasaga#Modern_Gotland
‘To Smoke’ possible words if you use smoke in heathen rituals
Reocan From Proto-Germanic *reukaną, whence also Old Frisian riāka, Old High German riohhan, Old Norse rjúka. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/reocan#Old_English
Reek From Middle English rek, reke (“smoke”), from Old English rēc, rīec, from Proto-Germanic *raukiz (compare West Frisian reek, riik, Dutch rook, Low German Röök, German Rauch, Danish røg, Norwegian Bokmål røyk), from Proto-Indo-European *rowgi- (compare Lithuanian rū̃kti (“to smoke”), rū̃kas (“smoke, fog”), Albanian regj (“to tan”)).[1] https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/reek
and
however, a term with old english roots that conveys the proper meaning of smoke cleansing in witchcraft: rēcan. pronounced similarly to the modern word “reek,” the term rēcan means: “to fumigate, expose to smoke, cause to emit smoke, or burn as incense.” closely related, the old english word rēocan means: “to emit vapor, steam, or smoke.” the term later evolved into the middle english word reken, meaning “to emit smoke.” while the word was not exclusively used to refer to foul smells, it lost much of its original meaning as it evolved into the modern day “reek,” which is now associated only with unpleasant stenches. given its old english roots and lackluster definition, the term rēcan makes an eloquent and appropriate moniker for the smoke cleansing performed in non-native practices of witchcraft and paganism.
https://musingsofmagick.wordpress.com/2018/06/18/recaning-smoke-cleansing-in-witchcraft/
Nine Herb Charm (herb ideas)
The "Nine Herbs Charm" is an Old English charm recorded in the tenth-century CE[1] Anglo-Saxon medical compilation known as Lacnunga, which survives on in the manuscript London, British Library, Harley 585.[2] The charm is intended for the treatment of poisoning and infection by a preparation of nine herbs. The numbers nine and three, significant in Germanic paganism and later Germanic folklore, are mentioned frequently within the charm.[2] The poem contains references to Christian and English Pagan elements, including a mention of the major Germanic god Woden.
https://spitalfieldslife.com/2018/05/15/the-nine-herbs-charm/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nine_Herbs_Charm
Runes
‘May Thor Hallow’ > ‘Thor Vigi’ "þur uiki" > "Þórr vigi" > "Thor vigi" > “May Thor Hallow” in runes
‘ siþi þur’ > ‘ Siði Þorr‘ > ‘May Thórr safeguard’ ‘May Thor protect.’ ‘May Thor work magic’ possible translations
Sources
https://skaldic.abdn.ac.uk/db.php?id=16064&if=runic&table=mss
http://dro.dur.ac.uk/1053/1/1053.pdf
https://utrianlax.tumblr.com/post/47034486631/rune-stone-s%C3%B6-140-korpbron-jursta-%C3%A4gor-ludgo/amp Picture of it
Apple Wassail old rites but later by ancient standards for blessing crops and trees
The Apple Wassail is a traditional form of wassailing practiced in the cider orchards of southern England during the winter. There are many well recorded instances of the Apple Wassail in the early modern period. The first recorded mention was at Fordwich, Kent, in 1585, by which time groups of young men would go between orchards performing the rite for a reward. The practice was sometimes referred to as "howling". On Twelfth Night, men would go with their wassail bowl into the orchard and go about the trees. Slices of bread or toast were laid at the roots and sometimes tied to branches. Cider was also poured over the tree roots. The ceremony is said to "bless" the trees to produce a good crop in the forthcoming season. Among the most famous wassail ceremonies are those in Whimple, Devon and Carhampton, Somerset, both on 17 January.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Wassail
Celtic/Gaelic
Saining
Saining is a Scots word for blessing, protecting or consecrating.[1] Sain is cognate with the Irish and Scottish Gaelic seun and sian and the Old Irish sén - "a protective charm."[2][3][4]
Traditional saining rites may involve water that has been blessed in some fashion, or the smoke from burning juniper, accompanied by spoken prayers or poetry.[2][3] Saining can also refer to less formal customs like making religious signs to protect against evil, such as the sign of the cross. In Shetland, the Scottish folklorist F. Marian McNeil refers to the custom of making the sign of Thor's hammer to sain the goblet that was passed around at New Year's celebrations.[5]
An old Hogmanay (New Year's) custom in the Highlands of Scotland, which has survived to a small extent and seen some degree of revival, is to celebrate Hogmanay with the saining of the household and livestock. Early on New Year's morning, householders drink and then sprinkle 'magic water' from 'a dead and living ford' around the house (a 'dead and living ford' refers to a river ford that is routinely crossed by both the living and the dead). After the sprinkling of the water in every room, on the beds and all the inhabitants, the house is sealed up tight and branches of juniper are set on fire and carried throughout the house and byre. The juniper smoke is allowed to thoroughly fumigate the buildings until it causes sneezing and coughing among the inhabitants. Then all the doors and windows are flung open to let in the cold, fresh air of the new year. The woman of the house then administers 'a restorative' from the whisky bottle, and the household sits down to its New Year breakfast.[6] Saining with juniper was also used in healing rites, where the evil eye was suspected to be the cause of the illness, but it apparently fell out of use by the end of the nineteenth century after a young girl with respiratory problems suffocated due to the amount of smoke that filled the house.[7]
Saining is a common practice in modern traditions based on Scottish folklore, such as blessing and protecting children and other family members.[2][3] While many of the surviving saining prayers and charms are Christian in nature,[2][3] others that focus on the powers of nature are used as part of Gaelic Polytheist ceremonies.[8][9]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saining
Smàladh – Smooring the Hearth Fire
Each household would have a hearth fire over which all the household food would be prepared, and around which the most important aspects of family life would happen. The hearth fire would traditionally have been kept alight all year long in both Scotland and Ireland, with the exception of Bealltainn eve when it was extinguished and then relit from a flame brought from a communal bonfire to ensure health and prosperity upon the household in the coming year.1 It was a matter of pride and superstition not to let the flame die out even in the height of summer, and many households could boast that their hearth had remained alight for several generations – even centuries. If the fire did die out, it was said “the soul goes out of the people of the house.”2
Smooring, therefore – a Scots word usually translated as ‘smothering,’ but perhaps more accurately ‘subduing’3 – was a process by which the fire was dampened down so it would not need tending, and therefore could be left safely alight during the night. In Ireland, it was said that the Good Folk would be displeased if they arrived at a house during the night to find that there was no fire for them.4 In Ireland, a charm such as this was said as the fire was covered with the ashes: “Coiglim an tine seo mar choigleann Críost cáidh; Muire ar mhullach an tí, agus Bríd ina lár; An t-ochtar ainglí is tréine i gCathair na nGrás Ag cumhdach an ti seo ‘s a mhuintir thabhairt slán. I save this fire, as noble Christ saves;
Mary on the top of the house and Brigid in its centre;
the eight strongest angels in Heaven
preserving this house and keeping its people safe.)”6
These days it’s not really possible for most households to keep a flame burning all year round, if at all. As a result, the ritual becomes more symbolic, something to be done as you go up to bed and make sure all the lights and appliances are switched off, for example. The following rune is just one example of a smooring that was recorded by Carmichael. I tend to visualise the sacred three as being the gods, the ancestors and the nature spirits: Smooring the fire
An Trì naomh
A chumhnadh,
A chomhnadh,
A chomraig
An tula,
An taighe,
An teaghlaich,
An oidhche,
An nochd,
O! an oidhche,
An nochd,
Agus gach oidhche,
Gach aon oidhche.
The sacred Three
To save,
To shield,
To surround
The hearth,
The house,
The household,
This eve,
This night,
Oh! this eve,
This night,
And every night,
Each single night.8
http://www.tairis.co.uk/daily-practices/smaladh/
Romania
Sweeping
In Romanian lore, the besom is a potent object which becomes truly magical at special occasions. For example, for Marina’s Day which is celebrated in Romania on July 17, mothers celebrate Marina, the protector of the souls of dead children, by crafting brooms with bristles made out of Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) and offering them to each other alongside flowers, corn, and chicks, and they keep the brooms which they use to sweep their homes and yards. They believe that these special brooms not only sweep away the dirt, but also bad luck and spirits such as the strigoi. Strigoii, which are believed to mount the brooms of the villagers to go to their nocturnal gatherings on the nights of Sângiorz (April 23) and Sântandrei (November 30), were unable to mount the brooms made of Wormwood. The Wormwood broom is also used by the Romanian people to bring someone back home, to sweep away evil forces, and even illness by sweeping around the ill. The broom is also a potent tool against Muma Pădurii (the mother of the forest). For this, the broom of the witch or the disenchantress or the broom of the mother whose child is haunted by the mother of the forest is used during a disenchanting ritual by sweeping the entrance to the home or by placing it next to the child’s bed. In all the spells and charms where the broom is used to repel something evil, the disenchantress or the witch always says to said evil to leave and go far away “because I will sweep you with the broom” (“Că eu cu mătura te-oi mătura”) otherwise.
https://www.theoldcraft.com/2018/05/14/the-witchs-besom-how-to-craft-and-use-your-own-magical-broom/
submitted by OccultVolva to pagan [link] [comments]


2020.06.04 17:08 ChildfreeFamily Help fact-checking a list of well known Childfree people

I'm compiling a list of childfree people for a blog. I have found a few lists online (which have been helpful). But in some cases they were not up-to-date. A person may have had children since being added to their list (example: I had to remove George Clooney who appeared on a number of lists). Or there might be some people missing who should be on the list.
If you have a moment to scan the list and let me know of any other errors or omissions it would be appreciated.
It has been fun working on this list. A few people on it surprised me. Thanks again for any help.
\Edit for clarification: the term "childfree", in the sense of this list, will be in regards to people who never had a child from a live birth, fostered a child, adopted a child, or was a step-parent.*

Herbert Samuel Adams – Sculptor
Charles Addams – Cartoonist (The New Yorker)
Jane Addams - Social Worker, Political Activist, Co-Founder of the ACLU, & Nobel Peace Prize Winner
Nancy Addison – Actress
Louisa May Alcott – Author
Cynthia May Westover Alden – Author, Philanthropist
Grover Cleveland Alexander – Baseball Player
Suzy Allegra – Author
Marty Allen – Comedian
John Murray Anderson – Musical Theatre Producer
Laurie Anderson – Performance Artist
Marian Anderson – Concert Singer
Louis Andriessen – Composer
Jennifer Aniston – Actress
Susan B. Anthony – Womans’ Suffragist
Samuel Appleton – Politician, Philanthropist
Geoffrey Arend - Actor
Louis Armstrong – Musician (Contested: The Louis Armstrong Museum states he had no children, but in 2012 Sharon Preston-Folta has claimed to be his daughter from Lucille “Sweets” Preston, a dancer at the New York Cotton Club)
Boris Artzybasheff – Artist
Dorothy Arzner – Film Director
Dr. Robert C. Atkins – Diet Doctor, Author, Creator of the Atkins Diet
V.C. Andrews – Author
Jane Austen – Author
Max Baer Jr. – Actor
Francis Bacon – Politician, Philosopher, Scientist
Florence Bailey – Author, Naturalist, Ornithologist
Tallulah Bankhead – Actress
Abdullah al-Baradouni – Yemeni Poet
Bob Barker – Game Show Host
Joe Barr – Canadian Politician
Lynda Barry – Cartoonist
Clara Barton - Nurse, Humanitarian, Founder and First President of the American Red Cross
Kathy Bates – Actress
Jaya Battacharya – Actress
King Baudouin – King of Belgium
Samuel Beckett – Author, Playwright, Poet
Ludwig Van Beethoven – Composer
Joe Besser – Actor
Isabella Bird – Author
Jacqueline Bisset – Actress
Lewis Black – Comedian
Eubie Blake – Musician, Composer
William Blake – Artist
Brenda Blethyn – Actress
Marc Blitzstein – Composer, Dramatist
Baroness Karen Blixen – Author
Rosa Bonheur – French Painter and Sculptor
Pierre Bonnard – Artist
William Edgar Borah – Politician
Lara Flynn Boyle – Actress
Georges Brassens – Singer
Alison Brie – Actress
Joe Bob Briggs aka John Bloom – Author, Movie Critic
Raymond Briggs – Children’s Book Author
Poppy Z. Brite – Author
Anne Bronte – Author
Louise Brooks – Actress
Helen Gurley Brown – Feminist, Editor
Reno Browne – Actress, Equestrian
Delta Burke – Actress
Kathy Burke - Actress, Comedian
James Buchanan – 15th U.S. President
Pat Buchanan – Politician, Presidential Candidate
James Burke – Creator of the PBS Series “Connections”, Scientific American columnist
Raymond Burr – Actor
Caryl Lee Burroughs – Hollywood Animal Trainer
Leo Buscaglia – Author
Brett Butler – Actress, Comedian
Julia Cameron – Director
Phyllis Carlyle – Film Producer
Dora Carrington – Bloomsbury Artist
Laura Carroll – Author
Mary Casatt – Artist
Roger Casement – Irish Patriot
Nina Cassian – Poet
Barbara Castle – British Politician
Kim Cattrall – Actress
Mary Chapin Carpenter – Singer, Songwriter
Rosamond Halsey Carr – Founder of Rwanda’s Imbabazi Orphanage, Author, Fashion Designer
Richard Chamberlain – Actor
Coco Chanel – Fashion Designer (Contested: Following her elder sister’s suicide, she looked after her son)
Stockard Channing – Actress
RuPaul Andre Charles - Drag Performer, TV Personality
Judy Chicago – Artist
Margaret Cho – Comedian
Julia Child – Professional Chef, Cookbook Author
Helen Clark – New Zealand Prime Minister
Patricia Clarkson – Actress
Dorothy Clewes – Children’s Book Author
Imogene Coca – Actress
Claudette Colbert – Actress
Billy Collins – U.S. Poet Laureate
C. Collodi – Author
William Conrad – Actor
Frances Conroy – Actress
Storm Constantine – Fantasy Writer
Jill Ker Conway – Author, first woman President of Smith College
Anne Cool – Canadian Senator
Pat Coombs – Actress
Copernicus – Scientist
John Corbett – Actor
Joseph Cornell – Artist and Creator of the Cornell Box
Ann Coulter – Political Commentator
Alec Sadler Craig – Australian Politician, Philanthropist
Quentin Crisp – Author, Actor
Tim Curry – Actor
Charlotte Curtis – First woman on the masthead of The New York Times
Patrika Darbo – Actress
Simone de Beauvoir – Author
Mahmoud Darwish – Palestinian Poet
Leonardo Da Vinci – Artist
Gray Davis – Governor of California
Ellen Degeneres – Comedian
Jeffery Deaver – Author
Eugene Victor Debs – Activist
Bessie and Sadie Delaney – Authors
Dana Delany – Actress
Don DeLillo – Author
Del Rubio Triplets – Musical Group
Bo Derek – Actress
Rene Descartes – Philosopher
Portia De Rossi – Actress
Emily Dickinson – Poet
Benjamin Disraeli – Politician, Author
Steve Ditko – Cartoonist, co-creator of the Spider-Man Comics
Dorothea Dix – Educator, writer, philanthropist
Hannah Dobryn – Author
Tamara Dobson – Actress
Richard Donner – Film Director
Lauren Shuler Donner – Film Producer
Lizzie Douglas aka Memphis Minnie- Singer, Guitarist, Songwriter
Marjory Stoneman Douglas – Environmentalist, Founder of Friends of the Everglades
Maureen Dowd – Columnist, Pulitzer Prize winner
Sir George Downing – Founder of Downing College, Cambridge, England
Gabriel Dumont – Native American Tribal Leader
Lena Dunham - Actress, Director, Producer
Francis Drake – Explorer
Fran Drescher – Actress
Esther Dyson – Author, Internet Expert
Amelia Earhart – Aviator
Deborah Eisenberg – Author
Liubov Egorova – Dancer
Anita Ekberg – Actress
T.S. Eliot – Poet
Havelock Ellis – Psychologist, Author
Tracee Ellis Ross – Actress
Harlan Ellison – Author
Elizabeth I – Queen of England
Joan Elm – Canadian Politician, Community Activist
Bonnie Erbé – PBS Commentator and Columnist
Dame Edith Evans – British Film and Stage Actress
Linda Evans – Actress
Rupert Everett – Actor
Anne Ewers – CEO of the Utah Symphony & Opera
Jane Fallon – Author
Chow Yun-Fat – Actor
Barbara Feldon – Actress
Pamelyn Ferdin – Actress
Ralph Fiennes – Actor
Lynn Fontanne – Actress
Margot Fonteyn – British Ballerina
Juliana Rieser Force – Whitney Museum Director
Richard Ford – Author, Editor of Granta
Margaretta Forten – Abolitionist
Dian Fossey – Anthropologist
Janet Frame – Poet
Felix Frankfurter – Supreme Court Justice
Tanya Franks – Actress
William Frawley – Actor
Frank Frazetta – Artist
Alice Freeman – First woman to be President of a liberal arts college, (Wellesley), helped establish the University of Chicago.
Elsie Freund – Artist, Jewelry Designer
Louis Freund – Artist
Robert Fripp – Composer, Musician
Stephen Fry - Actor, Comedian
Eva Gabor – Actress
Magda Gabor – Actress
Maxwell Gage – Noted New Zealand Geologist
Diamanda Galas – Singer
Tess Gallagher – Author
Paul William Gallico – Author
Janeane Garofalo – Actress, Comedian
Greta Garbo – Actress
Ava Gardner – Actress
Henry Garfiled aka Henry Rollins - Musician (Black Flag, Rollins Band)
Greer Garson – Actress
Gloria Gaynor – Singer
Anthony Geary – Soap Opera Actor
Ricky Gervais – Comedian
William Schwenck Gilbert – Composer for Gilbert & Sullivan
Althea Gibson – Athlete
Dorothy Gish – Actress
Lillian Gish – Actress
Katharine Bruce Glasier – Author
Susan Glaspell – Playwright
Sharon Gless – Actress
Crispin Glover – Actor
Christoph Willibald Gluck – Composer
Paulette Goddard – Actress
Robert Hutchings Goddard – Physicist
Kurt Godel – Author
Alexander Godunov – Actor, Dancer
Stephen Goldin – Author
Emma Goldman – Activist, Feminist
Valeria Golino – Actress
Jan Goodwin – Author, Travel Writer
Edward Gorey – Artist
Lotte Goslar – Dancer
Lauren Graham - Actress (Contested - Her long-term partner has a child.)
Martha Graham – Choreographer
Cecil Green – Former CEO of Texas Instruments, Philanthropist
Johnny Green – Musician
Gael Greene – Food Critic, Author
Baroness Susan Greenfield – Director of the Royal Institution, Professor of Synaptic Pharmacology at Oxford University, Neurologist
John Robert Gregg – Inventor of the Gregg Shorthand Method, Publisher
Joyce Grenfell – British Actress
Nanci Griffith – Singer, Songwriter
Martha Griffiths – First Female Michigan Lieutenant Governor
Terry Gross – NPR Host
James Grout – Actor
Mabel Dole Haden – Former President of NABWA
Catherine Hakim – British Sociologist
Daryl Hall – Singer, Musician (Hall & Oates)
Jon Hamm - Actor
Celia Hammond – Former Model and Animal Activist
Lionel Hampton – Musician
Georg Friedrich Handel – Composer
Chelsea Handler - Comedian
Howard Harold Hanson – Pulitzer-Prize Winning Composer
Setsuko Hara – Japanese Actress
Warren Gamaliel Harding – 29th U.S. President
E Chambré Hardman – Photographer
Jean Harlow - Actress
Debbie Harry – Singer (Blondie)
Alex Heard – Author
Sir Edward Heath - Politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Susan Helms – Astronaut
Christina Hendricks - Actress, Model
Adrian Henri – Poet, Painter
Marguerite Henry – Children’s Book Author
Katherine Hepburn – Actress
Milton S. Hershey – Founder of the Hershey Chocolate Company
Lorena Hickok – AP Political Reporter
Taiko Hirabayashi – Author
Nicole Hollander – Cartoonist
Thelma Holt – Actress, Theatre Producer
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. – Associate Justice of the Supreme Court (USA)
Grace Murray Hopper – Computer Scientist
Rima Horton - Politician
Soad Hosni – Egyptian Actress
Lila Kedrova Howard – Actress
Mick Hucknall – Singer
Howard Hughes - American Business Magnate, Investor, Pilot, Engineer, Film Director, Philanthropist
Bonnie Hunt – Actress
Kristin Hunter – Children’s Book Author
Lauren Hutton – Actress, Model
Patricia Ireland – President of the National Organization for Women, NOW
George J. Irbe – Creator of the Great Lakes water temperature climatology
John A. “Jack” Jackson – Philanthropist, Oilman
Tove Jansson – Children’s Book Author
Randall Jarrell – Poet
Anna Jarvis – the “Founder of Mother’s Day”
Joan of Arc – Christian Saint
Jack Johnson – First African-American to win the heavyweight boxing championship of the world.
Margaret Johnston – Actress
Martin and Osa Johnson – Authors, Photographers, explorers, and naturalists.
Richard Mentor Johnson – U.S. Vice-President
Samuel Johnson – Author, Editor
William Hugh Johnston – Labor Leader
Carolyn Jones – Actress
Renee Jones – Actress
Spike Jonze – Film Director
Ashley Judd – Actress, Activist
Madeline Kahn – Actress
Immanuel Kant – Philosopher
Julie Kavner – Actress
Nikos Kazantzakis – Author
Odette Keene – Musician
Helen Keller – Author
Joyce Kennard – Judge
Joe Kernan – Politician
Maynard Keynes – Economist, Founder of the Vic-Wells Ballet, Financed the Arts Theatre in Cambridge, England
King Louis XVI – King of France
William Lyon MacKenzie King – Former Canadian Prime Minister
William Rufus King – U.S. Vice-President
Robert Kiyosaki – Author
Caroline Knapp – Author
Aleksandra Kollontai – Author
Dean Koontz – Author
Tadeusz Kościuszko – Polish Patriot
Jerzy Kosinski – Author
Jonathan Kozol – Author, Activist
Lee Krasner – Artist
Albert Kroc – Co-Developer of McDonald’s Fast Food Chain
Henry Richardson Labouisse – Diplomat, Former Head of UNICEF
Karl Lagerfeld - Fashion Designer
Princess Lakshmi – Indian Princess
Elsa Lanchester – Actress
Philip Larkin – Author, Poet
Charles Laughton – Actor, Director
Dan Lauria – Actor
Frank John Lausche – Politician
Tom Lehrer – Singer, Musician
Jay Leno – TV Host
Richard Lewis – Comedian
Lyn Lifshin – Poet
Queen Liliuokalani – Queen of Hawaii
Siân Lloyd – Weather Broadcaster
Carole Lombard – Actress
Jack Lord – Actor
Pauline Lord – Actress
Patty Loveless – Singer
Alfred Lunt – Actor
John Lyon – Philanthropist, Regarded as the Founder of The Great Public School Of Harrow
Rose McClendon – Actress
Robert McCormick – Former Owner of the Chicago Tribune
Mary Jackson McCrorey – Politician, Activist
Hattie McDaniel – Actress
Roddy McDowall – Actor, Photographer
Odd McIntyre – Newspaper Columnist
Ian McKellen – Actor
Kristy McNichol – Actress
Janet McTeer – Actress
Christine McVie – Singer, Songwriter (Fleetwood Mac)
Dora Maar – Photographer
René Magritte – Artist
Bill Maher – TV Personality
Katherine Mansfield – Author
Shirley Manson – Singer
Vito Anthony Marcantonio – Politician
Francesca Marciano – Actress
Miriam Margoyles – Actress
Mary Ellen Mark – Award-Winning Photographer
William III & Mary II of England – King & Queen of England, Ireland, and Scotland
Bobbie Ann Mason – Children’s Book Author
Mari Matsunaga – Creator of i-mode, Named One of the Top 25 Tech Women of the Web
Theresa May - Politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Giuseppe Mazzini – Italian Patriot
Fradique de Menezes – President of Sao Tome and Principe
Melina Mercouri – Greek Actress
Freddie Mercury – Musician
Angela Merkel – German Chancellor
George Michael – Musician
Oscar Micheaux – Film Director, Producer, Author
Edna St. Vincent Millay – Poet
Alley Mills – Actress
Brenda Milner – Renowned Professor of Neuro-Psychology: Mcgill’s Faculty Of Medicine And At The Montreal Neurological Institute
Kylie Minogue - Singer
Helen Mirren – Actress
Margaret Mitchell – Author
Eugenio Montale – Nobel Prize Winner, Poet, Author, Editor, Translator
Vicki Moore – Spanish Animal Rights Philanthropist
John Morgan – Founder of the University of Pennsylvania Medical School, and Medical Director of the Continental Army
Lady Morgan (Sydney Owenson) – Author
Morrissey – Musician
Rob Morse – Columnist (San Francisco Chronicle)
Marjorie “Mo” Mowlam – Britain’s Secretary of State for Northern Ireland
John Mulaney – Comedian
Annamarie Tendler Mulaney – Artist
Diana Muldaur – Actress
Megan Mullally - Actress
Ona Munson – Actress
Haruki Murakami – Author
Iris Murdoch – Author
Mikayil Mushfig – Poet
Modest Mussorgsky – Composer
Kanagarajah Muthiah – Tamil Activist
Ralph Nader – Activist
Taslima Nasrin – Author
Alla Nazimova – Actress
Noel Neill – Actress
Bebe Neuwirth – Actress
Sir Isaac Newton – Scientist
Stevie Nicks – Singer (Fleetwood Mac)
Friedrich Nietzsche – Philosopher
Florence Nightingale – Nurse
Ursula Nordstrom – Children’s Book Editor
Jessye Norman – Opera Singer
Kim Novak – Actress
Rudolph Nureyev – Dancer
Anita O’Day – Jazz Singer
Georgia O’Keeffe – Artist
Frederick D. O’Neal – Actor, Playwright
Joyce Carol Oates – Author
Nick Offerman - Actor
Sandra Oh - Actress
Claire Parker – Director, Animator
Dorothy Parker – Author
Suzanne-Lori Parks – Playwright
Rosa Parks – Activist
Dolly Parton – Singer, Actress
Julia Pascal – Playwright
Ann Patchett – Author
Alicia Patterson – Editor
Wolfgang Pauli – Physicist
Linus Pauling – Winner of Nobel Prizes in Chemistry and Peace
Sarah Paulson – Actress
Michelle Paver – Author
Anna Pavlova – Dancer
Molly Peacock – Poet, President Emerita of the Poetry Society of America
Minnie Pearl – Singer
Samuel Pepys – Author
Matthew Perry - Actor
Bernadette Peters – Actress
Jean Peters - Actress
Arthur Phillip – First British Administrator Sent to Australia
Wendell Phillips – Orator and Reformer
William Phillips – Co-founder and Editor of Partisan Review , Writer, Critic
Marge Piercy – Author, Poet
Plato – Philosopher
Martha Plimpton - Actress
Edgar Allan Poe – Author
Jackson Pollock – Artist
Katherine Ann Porter – Author
Parker Posey – Actress
Beatrix Potter – Children’s Book Author
Charles Edward Potter – Politician, Philanthropist, Administrator of the Cheboygan County Bureau of Social Aid
Joyce Purnick – Former New York Times Metro Editor, Journalist
Edna Purviance – Silent Movie Actress
Colin Quinn – Comedian
Robin Quivers – Radio Host
Raffi – Children’s Musician
Bonnie Raitt – Singer, Songwriter
Joey Ramone – Musician
Ayn Rand – Writer, Philosopher, Author
A. Philip Randolph – Politician
Jeanette Rankin – 1st Female US Representative
Man Ray – Artist
Rachel Ray – Celebrity Chef
Lou Reed – Singer, Musician
George Reeves – Actor
Frances Reid – Actress
Leni Riefenstahl – Filmmaker
Janet Reno – Former U.S. Attorney-General
Judith Resnick – Astronaut
Jennifer Rhodes – Actress
Condoleezza Rice – National Security Advisor
Cliff Richards – Musician
Miranda Richardson – Actress
Alan Rickman – Actor, Director
Elizabeth Riddell – Journalist
Sally Ride – First American Female Astronaut
Bridget Riley – Artist
John Ringling – Founder of Ringling Brothers Circus
Mary Roach - Author
Morgan Andrew Robertson – Author
Debbie Rochon – Actress
Norman Perceval Rockwell – Illustrator
Eric Rohmann – Author, Winner of the 2003 Caldecott Medal for Best Illustrated Children’s Book
Ginger Rogers – Actress
Richard Roeper – Film Reviewer, Chicago Sun-Times
Wilhelm Rontgen – Awarded the first Nobel Prize for Physics in 1901, discoverer of X-Rays
William Bruce Rose Jr. aka Axl Rose - Musician (Guns N' Roses)
Mickey Rourke – Actor, Boxer
Patricia Routledge – Actress
Joan Ruddock – Activist
John Ruskin – Author
Winona Ryder – Actress
Yves Saint-Laurent - Fashion Designer
Dr. Lee Salk – Child Psychologist
Renu Saluja – Indian Film Editor
Diana Sands – Actress
Aligi Sassu – Artist
John Sayles – Director
Jean-Paul Sartre – Existential Philosopher
Diane Sawyer – TV News Anchor
Rosika Schwimmer – Author, Activist
Ed and Thelma Schoenberger – Co-founders of the Indiana Flower & Patio Show
Ellen Browning Scripps – Newspaper Columnist, Philanthropist
Joel Schumacher – Film Director
Maurice Sendak – Children’s Book Author
George Bernard Shaw – Playwright
Lionel Shriver – Author
Sarah Silverman – Comedian, Actress
Michael Sinelnikoff – Actor
Siouxsie – Singer, Musician (Siouxsie and the Banshees)
Robert Smith – Singer, Musician (The Cure)
David Shogren – Bassist (Doobie Brothers)
Betty Smith – Author
Dodie Smith – Playwright, Author of The Hundred and One Dalmatians
Gladys Louise Smith aka Mary Pickford - Actress, Producer, Screenwriter, Businesswoman
Howard Worth Smith – Politician
Kate Smith – Singer
Lemony Snicket (Real Name: Daniel Handler) – Children’s Book Author
David Souter – Supreme Court Justice
Jill St. John – Actress
Mabel Stark – Female Tiger Trainer
Gertrude Stein – Author, Patron of the Arts
Victor Strauss – WWII Journalist
Gloria Steinem – Activist, Writer
Maria W. Stewart – Author, Activist
Lily Strickland – Composer, Writer, Artist
Patrick Swayze – Actor
Loretta Swit – Actress
Henrietta Szold – Holocaust Heroine
Wislawa Szymborska – Nobel Prize Winning Poet
Amy Tan - Writer, Author
Sara Teasdale – Poet
Toni Tennille – Singer (Captain and Tennille)
Princess María Teresa of Bourbon-Parma – French-Spanish Political Activist and Academic
Nikola Tesla – Scientist, Inventor
Theodora – Empress and wife of Justinian I
Susanna Thompson – Actress
Georgianne Thon – Actress
M. Carey Thomas – President of Bryn Mawr College
Willie Mae Thornton – Singer, Songwriter
Jennifer Tilly – Actress
Wendy Tokunaga – Author
Lily Tomlin – Actress, Playwright
Ann Turkel – Model
Randy Travis – Singer
Edward Tylor – Anthropologist
----------------------------------------------------------------EDIT---------------------------------------------------------
Names "U - Z" will be in a comment below (the new additions put the list over the character limit).
submitted by ChildfreeFamily to childfree [link] [comments]


2020.06.02 03:54 EIL_Shill_Crusher Dinosaurs never existed and are garbage.

FlatEarthScience
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The class “Dinosauria” was originally defined by “Sir” Richard Owen of the Royal Society, and Superintendent of the British Museum Natural History Department in 1842.
Firstly, it should be needless to say that it is impossible to reconstruct an entire hypothetical ancient animal based on a few teeth!
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...
“Why are there no discoveries by native Americans in all the years previous when they roamed the American continents? There is no belief of dinosaurs in the Native American religion or tradition. For that matter, why were there no discoveries prior to the nineteenth century in any part of the world? According to the World Book Encyclopedia, ‘before the 1800’s no one ever knew that dinosaurs existed.’ During the late 1800’s and early 1900’s, large deposits of dinosaur remains were discovered …Why has man suddenly made all these discoveries?” -David Wozney, “Dinosaurs: Science or Science Fiction”
No tribes, cultures or countries in the world ever discovered a dinosaur bone before the mid-1800s, and then they were suddenly found all over the world in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Argentina, Belgium, Mongolia, Tanzania, West Germany and many other places apparently had large deposits of dinosaur fossils never before seen.
All these places were inhabited and well-explored for thousands of years before this time, why had no one ever found a dinosaur fossil before?
...
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“Discoveries and excavations seem not to be made by disinterested people, such as farmers, ranchers, hikers, outdoor recreationists, building construction industry basement excavators, pipeline trench diggers, and mining industry personnel but rather by people with vested interests, such as paleontologists, scientists, university professors, and museum organization personnel who were intentionally looking for dinosaur bones or who have studied dinosaurs previously. The finds are often made during special dinosaur-bone hunting trips and expeditions by these people to far-away regions already inhabited and explored. This seems highly implausible. More believable is the case of the discovery of the first original Dead Sea scrolls in 1947, which were unintentionally discovered by a child, and which were all published by 1955. In some cases of a discovery of dinosaur bones by a disinterested person, it was suggested to them by some ‘professional’ in the field to look or dig in a certain area. Also very interesting to note are special areas set aside and designated as dinosaur parks for which amateur dinosaur hunters are required to first obtain a dinosaur hunting license.” -David Wozney, “Dinosaurs: Science or Science Fiction”
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Whatever destination these establishment-funded archeologists and paleontologists set, it seemed they found incredible numbers of fossils in tiny areas.
Many experts have mentioned how such finds of huge quantities of fossils in one area, by just a few highly-invested individuals, goes against the laws of natural probability and lends credence to the likelihood of forgeries or concentrated planting efforts.
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“‘Dinosaur’ bones sell for a lot of money at auctions. It is a profitable business. There is pressure for academics to publish papers. Museums are in the business of producing displays that are popular and appealing. Movie producers and the media need to produce material to sell to stay in business. The mainstream media loves to hype alleged dinosaurs finds. Much is to be gained by converting a bland non-dinosaur discovery, of a bone of modern origin, into an impressive dinosaur find, and letting artists' interpretations and imaginations take the spotlight, rather than the basic boring real find. There are people who desire and crave prestige, fame and attention. There is the bandwagon effect and crowd behaviour. And then there are people and entities pursuing political and religious agendas. Highly rewarding financial and economic benefits to museums, educational and research organizations, university departments of paleontology, discoverers and owners of dinosaur bones, and the book, television, movie, and media industries may cause sufficient motivations for ridiculing of open questioning and for suppression of honest investigation.” -David Wozney, “Dinosaurs: Science or Science Fiction”.
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The fact that “T-Rex” bones have sold at auctions for upwards of $12 million shows how lucrative the field of dinosaur-hunting can be, and it just happens to be Museum officials who serendipitously seem to make the most prolific finds!
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HONK HONK!
“A visual and a sculptural artist were promptly hired to invent a skull, and from the illustrations of another artist, who had depicted the Iguanadon, the two artists drew the same face for the Hadrosaurus foulkii. The people involved could now technically defend the existence of this dinosaur, if someone were to ask. The stunt worked out so well, and fooled the public so thoroughly, that they could later change the head of the creature without anyone noticing. To this day, Hadrosaurus foulkii is on display at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia. The bones are said to be kept behind heavy, closed doors, but a plaster copy is exhibited in their place … So we learn of an iguana skull being substituted for the skull of a dinosaur on display. Was the public told at the time? What are we not being told today?” -David Wozney, “Dinosaurs: Science or Science Fiction”
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What we are not being told is that this is the rule and the not the exception.
To this day not a single complete skeleton of any dinosaur has ever been found!
All the museum displays, models, mannequins, cartoons, and movies of prehistoric monsters you have ever seen are all imaginative reconstructions based on incomplete skeletons arranged in a manner paleontologists believe to be most realistic.
Furthermore, the skeletons exhibited in museums are all admittedly intricate fabrications made of plaster, fiberglass, various epoxies, and other animal bones, not original fossils.
When “dinosaur” bones are transported and prepared they use strips of burlap soaked in plaster to jacket over the fossils.
Then after applying a tissue separator to keep the plaster from direct contact with the bone, the soaked burlap strips are laid on until it is totally encased in a protective mummy-like coating ready for safe transport.
In an article titled “A Fossil’s Trail From Excavation to Exhibit” one insider remarked that, “Through moldmaking and casting we can totally fabricate limbs, ribs, vertebrae, etc., for the missing pieces of an articulated skeletal mount.
Plaster, fiberglass and epoxies are often and commonly used. In reconstruction work on single bones, small to large cracks can be filled in with mache or plaster mixed with dextrin, a starch that imparts an adhesive quality and extra hardness to regular molding plaster.
We’ve also had success using epoxy putties. Large missing fragments can be sculpted directly in place with these same materials.” In other words, Museum personnel work with plaster and other materials to transport and fabricate skeletons and missing or incomplete bones all the time.
In fact, the huge “dinosaur bone” displays found in museums across the world are admittedly carefully prepared fakes! No independent researcher has ever examined a real dinosaur skull!
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They claim all the actual fossils are kept in high-security storage, but only a select few paleontologists are ever allowed to examine them, so the ability to ascertain their authenticity is kept from the general public.
“Most people believe that dinosaur skeletons displayed in museums consist of real dinosaur bones. This is not the case. The real bones are incarcerated in thick vaults to which only a select few highly placed researchers hold a key, which means that NO independent researcher has ever handled a tyrannosaurus rex bone.
When people unaffiliated with the paleontological establishment attempt to gain access in order to study these dinosaur bones, they are met with refusal upon refusal … Only around 2100 dinosaur bones sets have been discovered worldwide, and out of these, only 15 incomplete Tyrannosaurus Rex bone sets have been found. These dinosaur bone sets have never formed a complete skeleton, but from these incomplete bones sets, paleontologists have constructed a hypothesis about the appearance of the whole skeleton, which they have modeled in plastic. If thousands of longnecks and large carnivorous reptiles had really roamed Earth, we wouldn’t only have found 2100 dinosaur bone sets, but millions of bones, with ordinary people tripping over them when digging in their vegetable patches.” -Robbin Koefoed, “The Dinosaurs Never Existed”
“When children go to a dinosaur museum, are the displays they see displays of science or displays of art and science fiction? Are we being deceived and brainwashed at an early age into believing a dinosaur myth? Deep probing questions need to be asked of the entire dinosaur business. There may have been an ongoing effort since the earliest dinosaur ‘discoveries’ to plant, mix and match bones of various animals, such as crocodiles, alligators, iguanas, giraffes, elephants, cattle, kangaroos, ostriches, emus, dolphins, whales, rhinoceroses, etc. to construct and create a new man-made concept prehistoric animal called the dinosaur. Where bones from existing animals are not satisfactory for deception purposes, plaster substitutes may be manufactured and used. Some material similar or superior to plasticine clay or plaster of Paris would be suitable. Molds may also be employed." -David Wozney, “Dinosaurs: Science or Science Fiction”
Type “Dinosaur Skulls” into a search engine and you will find a variety of replicas, tailor made dinosaurs, and “museum-quality” skeletons.
One of the largest and most-renowned suppliers of fake dinosaurs is the Zigong Dino Ocean Art Company in Sichuan, China which provides natural history museums worldwide with ultra-realistic dinosaur skeletons made from real bones! Chicken, frog, dog, cat, horse and pig’s bones are melted down, mixed with glue, resin and plaster, then used as base material for re-casting as “dinosaur bones.” They are even given intentional fractures and an antiquated/fossilized look to achieve the right effect. Their website boasts, “Over 62% of our output goes to American and European markets, which means we will understand and are familiar with the intricacies and regulation of exporting to these regions … Since we are a partner of Dinosaur Museums, all products are made under the guidance of experts of the Chinese Academy of Sciences … We have gained a global sales network reaching the USA, Brazil, France, Poland, Russia, Germany, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, exhibited in Peru, Argentina, Vancouver, Cincinnati, Chicago and other places.”
“I have heard there is a fake-fossil factory in northeast China, in Liaoning Province, near the deposits where many of these recent alleged feather dinosaurs were found.” -Alan Feduccia, University of North Carolina Paleontology Professor
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“The possibility exists that key dinosaur bones on display have been artificially modified through sculpture and carving. Bone sculpture is not an unknown human activity. Many cultures participate in creating man-made objects out of existing bones, totally unrecognizable from the original shape. Is the dinosaur industry a customer of this sort of business? Is it possible that dinosaur skeleton replica are secretly assembled or manufactured in private buildings out of public view, with bones artificially constructed or used from a number of different modern-day animals? Why bother having any authentic original fossils at all if alleged replicas please the public?” -David Wozney, “Dinosaurs: Science or Science Fiction”
Another problem with dinosaurs is their unnatural structural dynamics.
Many dinosaur skeletons and reconstructions feature bipedal monsters like the T-Rex with a forward-leaning torso and head far larger and heavier than its counter-balancing tail.
Many museum displays cannot even stand up under their own weight; it is highly unlikely that beasts this large and disproportionate could exist at all. The loads acting on their skeletons are so great that calculations indicate the bones of the largest dinosaurs would buckle and crack under their own immense weight! Experts have also pointed out that dinosaurs would have to have moved much slower than portrayed in movies to prevent sudden shocks to their skeletons.
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“This idea of slow moving animals does not agree with the bio-mechanical analysis of dinosaurs, which indicate that the Dinosaurs were agile, active creatures. This is the paradox between the Dinosaurs size and lifestyle. Many displays and drawings of dinosaurs appear to be an absurdity, showing a two-legged animal that would be totally off-balance, with the weight of head and abdomen much greater than weight of tail, which is supposed to act as a counter-balance.
Is the dinosaur industry a case of science trying to meet public desires or expectations? The movie Jurassic Park is an example of showing dinosaurs much larger than any current displays in museums. After the movie came out, it is interesting to note that many articles were written asking ‘Is this possible?’ I can recall a report of dinosaur DNA being discovered preserved in amber, which later turned out to be false.” -David Wozney, “Dinosaurs: Science or Science Fiction
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“Overall, several millions of dollars have been spent promoting the existence of dinosaurs through movies, TV, magazines and comics. The world of movies and paleontology are like Siamese twins. People’s view on the existence of dinosaurs is based not on firm evidence, but on Hollywood fixated artistic impressions. Documentaries colorfully illustrate each dinosaur’s characteristics, like colors, weight and muscle mass, but Don Lessem (advisor for Jurassic Park) admits that this is pure guesswork - consider for instance the question of how much these dinosaurs weigh. Don Lessem says, ‘Scientists don’t know how much dinosaurs weighed!’” -Robbin Koefoed, “The Dinosaurs Never Existed
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Dinosaurs are presented to the public with colorful artistic reconstructions, drawings, models, mannequins, gigantic skeletons in museums, cartoons and movies showing these beasts in explicit detail, but the fact is from the assigning and arrangement of bones in each species, to the impossible to discern soft tissue, skin, eyes, noses, color, hairyness, texture etc., just like the many supposed Ape-Man species, all dinosaur reconstructions are 100% fictional fabrications created by invested and inventive evolutionists.
They purposely present dinosaurs to children in the media to spark and bias their young imaginations towards their machinations. Cartoons like “Ice Age” and “The Land Before Time,” movies like “Jurassic Park” and “Dinosaur Island,” coloring books, dolls, plastic toys, elementary school textbooks, and huge displays in children’s museums certainly have an effect on budding young minds.
Former Paleontology student Michael Forsell claimed on a radio interview with leading paleontologist Jack Horner, that he was “a total fraud, fabricating evidence and perpetuating the myth of dinosaurs.” He continued on saying “I started my career in the field of paleontology, only to leave my studies once I realized the whole thing was a sham. It’s nonsense, most of the so-called skeletons in museums are actually plaster casts. They even do it openly on documentaries now, preserving the bones my ass! I struggled as a student, mainly because I could not tell the difference between a fossilized egg and an ordinary rock, and of course there is no difference. I was treated like a leper when I refused to buy into their propaganda, and promptly left the course. Dinosaurs never existed, the whole shebang is a freak show, they just grab a couple of old bones and form them into their latest Frankenstein’s monster-like exhibit. We are all being fooled and it’s wrong, but together we can stop it.”
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Many claim that since dinosaur fossils have been radiometrically dated to be tens of millions of years old that their authenticity is thus proven.
Having had to deal with numerous calculated dates which are too young or too old compared with what they expected, scientists now admit that the process has many more uncertainties than they ever would have supposed in the early years. The public knows almost nothing about uncertainties in the dating of rocks. The impression that most people have received is that many rocks on earth are extremely old and that the technology exists to make accurate measurements of the ages. Scientists have become more and more aware however that the measurements which the machines make, may tell us nothing about the actual age of the rock.”
One of the main reasons that globies “needed” the existence of dinosaurs was to answer the complicated problems present in the theory of evolution including: sea-dwelling animals evolving into land-dwellers; reptiles evolving wings, feathers, flying and becoming birds; as well as other reptiles evolving warm-blood, live births, breasts and becoming mammals.
Through their imaginary multi-million-year timeline and a variety of supposed transitional dinosaur forms, the paleontological establishment has been promoting various sea-dinosaur, reptile/birds and reptile/mammals to bridge these gaps. Many professionals and experts in the field have disputed such findings as often as they have been presented, however.
Dr. Storrs Olson, a Smithsonian Institute Scientist, wrote, “The idea of feathered dinosaurs and the theropod origin of birds is being actively promulgated by a cadre of zealous scientists acting in concert with certain editors at Nature and National Geographic who themselves have become outspoken and highly biased proselytizers of the faith. Truth and careful scientific weighing of evidence have been among the first casualties in their program, which is now fast becoming one of the grander scientific hoaxes or our age.”
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No authentic feathers have ever been found with dinosaur fossils, though a few exposed hoaxes certainly attempted to fake it.
“In 1999, National Geographic magazine was busted when they presented, in a colorful and fancily presented article, the missing link. An Archeoraptor dinosaur, which was supposed to support the basic tenet of evolutionary theory, that dinosaurs had slowly developed over millions of years. Their proof consisted of a fossil, where carefully arranged bone imprints gave the impression of a creature half dinosaur and half bird. The scam was discovered during a CT scan which uncovered unnatural bone links. National Geographic magazine was later forced to admit, when pressured, that the fossil was man-made!” -Robbin Koefoed, “The Dinosaurs Never Existed
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Paleontologists claim that “Archaeopteryx” is another transitional form of bird evolved from dinosaurs, but this theory falls on its face against overwhelming evidence to the contrary.
Other species like Confuciusornis, Liaoningornis, and Eoalulavis have all been found to be contemporary with the Archaeopteryx and are indistinguishable from present-day birds.
Alan Feduccia from University of North Carolina, one of the most famous ornithologists in the world stated, “I’ve studied bird skulls for 25 years and I don’t see any similarities whatsoever. I just don’t see it. The theropod origins of birds, in my opinion, will be the greatest embarrassment of paleontology of the 20th century.” Larry Martin from the University of Kansas, a paleo-ornithologist says, “to tell you the truth, if I had to support the dinosaur origin of birds with those characters, I’d be embarrassed every time I had to get up and talk about it.”
Even if dinosaurs did evolve into birds to fill their evolution gap, it does not explain how something like the common housefly could have evolved.
There are many more questions which need to be answered before anyone in their right-mind should consider the existence of dinosaurs anything but a convenient evolutionist myth.
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“The paleontological establishment can control which hypotheses will be constructed through textbooks and the curriculum. In this way, students are brainwashed into a pseudo-reality controlled by the text material and the teacher’s authority. A short practical example; a random dental bone is found at an excavation site and from this dental bone, the rest of the skeleton is guessed at. We are not kidding about this. The entire dinosaurian field of the paleontological program is a sham.” -Robbin Koefoed, “The Dinosaurs Never Existed
“During the nineteenth century a new world view of evolution was being pursued by then influential people such as Darwin and Marx. During this era of thought the first dinosaur discoveries were made. Were these discoveries ‘made’ to try to make up for inadequacies in the fossil record for the theory of evolution? The following issues raise red flags as to the integrity of the dinosaur industry and cast doubts as to whether dinosaurs ever existed:
  1. dinosaur discoveries having occurred only within the last two centuries and in huge unusual concentrated quantities going against the laws of nature and probability;
  2. dinosaur discoverers typically and generally not being disinterested parties without a vested interest;
  3. the nature of public display preparation, calling into question the integrity and source of fossils, and allowing for the possibility of tampering and bone substitution, and the possibility of fraudulent activities on a systemic basis;
  4. existing artistic drawings and public exhibits showing off-balance and awkward postures that basic physics would rule out as being possible;
  5. very low odds of all these dinosaur bones being fossilized but relatively few bones of other animals;
  6. implications of dinosaur discoveries to the theory of evolution and the belief that man was created in God's image, suggesting possible hidden and subtle political or religious agendas served on a naive and unsuspecting public; and,
  7. a lack of funding for organizations and people questioning or being skeptical of each and every discovery and public display. The possibility exists that living dinosaurs never existed.
"The dinosaur industry should be investigated and questions need to be asked. I am unaware of any evidence or reason for absolutely believing dinosaurs ever were alive on earth. The possibility exists that the concept of prehistoric living dinosaurs has been a fabrication of nineteenth and twentieth century people pursuing a nonsense globe cult agenda. Questioning what is being told instead is a better choice rather than blindly believing the dinosaur story. ” -David Wozney, “Dinosaurs: Science or Science Fiction”
submitted by EIL_Shill_Crusher to copypasta [link] [comments]


2020.05.29 08:29 MilkbottleF Enrique Anderson-Imbert - Twenty-two Stories and Situations [Translated by Carleton Vail, Pamela Edwards-Mondragón, and Isabel Reade]

Selected from Woven on the Loom of Time: Stories by Enrique Anderson-Imbert (University of Texas Press, 1990), and The Other Side of the Mirror (El grimorio), an "authorised translation" written in collaboration with EA-I (Southern Illinois University Press, 1966).

The Pomegranate [Tr by Vail and Edwards-Mondragón]

Nathaniel, who has failed as a writer, decides to commit suicide. He loads his revolver, places it at his side on his desk, and starts to write his letter of farewell. The letter lengthens, brightens, breathes, lives. It is the Masterpiece, the yearned-for Masterpiece! In order to publish it, Nathaniel does not commit suicide.
. . .
Robert told a secret and Basil, upon hearing it, promised, “I will be silent as a tomb.” Thus was born a great friendship. From that point on, they were always together, Robert speaking, Basil listening. In time Basil became more and more silent and hollow. One day Robert noted with disgust that Basil was in fact a tomb, and, with his eyes—open like the REST IN PEACE on a tombstone—was inviting him to jump on down.
. . .
The children gather in the square, each one with his stick, as they had all agreed. They gather hanging from crutches, perched on stilts, mounted on broomsticks. The air is stiff with javelins, canes, lances, flags. Martin arrives with a toothpick in his mouth.
. . .
“Rejoice! Your wish has been granted! You will write the best stories in the world. However, no one will read them.”
. . .
He made himself wings of ostrich feathers, climbed up the bell-tower and threw himself out into the air. When they picked him up, with his legs broken, he explained that he had fallen because the feathers were too heavy.
“Next time,” he said, “I’ll fly without wings.”
. . .
The man empties his revolver into his terrible enemy. Five shots. Yet he squeezes the trigger one time more. On hearing the click of the empty weapon, he feels helpless. Now, alone with the corpse, he is afraid.
. . .
He received a grant to travel. Where? America? Europe? Asia? Africa? Oceania? The morning suddenly became dark, and when he looked up, expecting to see a cloud, he glimpsed an enormous hand that drew back quickly behind the sky. If that hand was the one that was going to move him around on the chessboard of the world, what would he be: a pawn, a king, a rook, a knight, or a bishop?
. . .
A tiny island, round and green, lost in the blue sea: in the middle, just a single tree with gray branches.
From far away an angel, coming down head first, thought that the tiny island was the round, green foliage of a tree flying through the blue sky, and that the branches of the tree were gray roots that it was trailing.
. . .
They were unable to explain either the chemistry or the theology of his halo. Meanwhile that human beast went strolling about the jail yard, displaying the beautiful halo on his head.
. . .
I bathed, shaved, and dressed; I looked at myself in the mirror. “Let’s go!” I said to my agoraphobia, and together we went out to take a walk in the park.
. . .
In a dividing wall between two old houses in Babylon, there was a hole. During the last few weeks, the hole had taken on the shape of a mouth, the shape of an ear; after that certain night it started to take on the shape of an eye. Now the hole looks out from side to side: “Aren’t they going to come? Won’t they come tonight either?” it asks. And it listens for the slightest sounds, with the hope of hearing the silent steps of the lovers. A useless wait. Time passes and the hole, which will never learn about Pyramus and Thisbe, slowly fills with cobwebs.
. . .
Someone passed along the street whistling “Salome.” The man began to accompany the melody, closed his eyes, saw his old neighborhood by the railroad tracks, to which he had not returned since childhood, and felt cold in his legs: the cold in his bare legs at a time when he was wearing short pants and was whistling “Salome.” He got down from his bed and dragged himself to the door. Seated on his little platform with rollers, pushing himself along with his arms, a legless beggar, he rolled along the streets like a happy child.

Spiral

I returned to my home in the early morning, heavy with sleep. As I entered, all was in darkness. In order not to wake anyone I went on tiptoe and came to the spiral staircase that led to my room. Scarcely had I put my foot on the first step than I wondered whether this was my home or another, identical to it. And as I went up I feared that another boy, just like me, might be sleeping in my room and perhaps dreaming me in the very same act of climbing the spiral staircase. I made the last turn, opened the door, and there he was, or I was, all lit up by the moon, sitting up in bed, with eyes wide open. We remained an instant, staring at each other. We smiled. I felt that his smile was the same as the one on my own lips: as in a mirror, one of the two was false. “Who is dreaming whom?” one of us exclaimed, or perhaps both of us together. At that moment we heard footsteps coming up the spiral staircase: in one motion we merged together and thus started to dream the one coming up the stairs, once again ME.

The Prisoner

When they shoved Luis Augusto Bianqui into a cell it took him a few days to discover that he was able to dissolve into air, escape like a breath through the transom, reassume his bodily form on the other side, go about in the streets, and live his life as usual. There was one inconvenience: each time that a guard came along to inspect his cell, Bianqui, wherever he was, had to drop everything, return in a flash, and resume his image as a prisoner. A matter of conscience! If the jailors were forgetful, Bianqui’s freedom became real. He studied the timetable of the guards’ rounds in order to walk around the city only during hours more or less safe, without fear of interruption. He would spend a whole night out. Even so, in the jail they were accustomed to making unexpected inspections. More than once he had felt the pull from his cell and had had to dissolve while in the arms of a woman. Very unsatisfactory. Little by little, he began to renounce his power to evaporate; finally, in the end, he stayed in jail.

Heroes

A hand touched him from behind. He was afraid to turn around for fear that, in looking over his shoulder, he would see at his back, vengeful, a Past that was calling him. Oedipus departed, deep in thought, and continued on the road to Thebes.
. . .
Some of the sailors that were returning from their long voyages were accustomed to visiting Sinbad, the paralytic. Sinbad would close his eyes and tell them adventures from his own inner voyages. In order to make them more believable, he would attribute them to Odysseus. “I’ll wager,” thought Sinbad when he was alone, “that he never left his house either.”

Narcissus

One day, leaning out over the fountain, Narcissus could no longer see his face. It was as if his face had fallen to the bottom of the fountain and had dissolved there. Disgusted by the sensation of a face faded away, he stretched out on the ledge. “What is happening to me?” he thought. “What is happening to me that I see the water and don’t see myself?” He glanced at the things that surrounded him and for the first time found them beautiful. Suddenly he discovered another beauty: the girl who was approaching him. The maiden leaned over him, Narcissus, and silently started to make faces as if over water: she smiled, threw her head back or turned sideways to see the lines of her cheeks, rehearsed the expression of her eyes, arranged the waves of her hair, and even, with a rapid movement of her lips, kissed herself.
Narcissus, meanwhile, hidden behind himself, now a pure mirror, remained trembling, trembling like water when it is touched.
. . .
The nymph Echo listened amorously to the beautiful Narcissus and then repeated his last words, and Narcissus, hearing himself in the voice of Echo, was as enchanted as when he looked at himself in the pool.
After some time, Echo noticed that in reality Narcissus was ignoring her and that she was for him scarcely more than a sounding mirror. She realized this only when Narcissus said “Goodbye.” “Goodbye,” Echo answered, believing that he was saying goodbye to her; but then she understood that he was saying goodbye to himself because he was going to die.

The Rival

King Arthur had known Guinevere since she was a child. He saw her as she grew up. He saw, on an April noon, how as she passed under the branch of a rosebush, a rose petal fell and left her stained with red. Then he decided to marry the maiden.
A maiden, without doubt. Nevertheless, after a few days of marriage King Arthur heard Guinevere talking in her sleep about a former spouse, more handsome than he, stronger than he, more loving than he. Jealous, King Arthur searched for him in order to make sure. He let his horse wander at will, dismounted on the bank of a river, boarded a barge without a sail, without oars, without a tiller, disembarked on a beach of golden sand, crossed through a tangled wood, passed over a bridge to an island, climbed up a mountain and at the top saw a castle of crystal turning in the wind like a mill wheel while four griffins, perched on four marble pillars, beat their wings. King Arthur made a great leap, caught hold of the drawbridge, and managed to enter the castle where he met his rival—whose head had the shape of an omega, with the face erased—and from him he learned that on certain nights Guinevere had been his wife.
Understanding that all this was from another world, and that therefore nothing that had happened there affected his honor, King Arthur returned to the arms of his wakened bride, and was happy ever after.

Patterns of the Possible

After the last birds died, the cage took off from the patio and began to fly toward heaven. “It is coming to us to ask for forgiveness,” thought the angels, unaware.
. . .
The cat Aknatun still conserved the memory of having been a man and, thanks to this, was able to get along with Cleopatra, who, in turn, recalled, also vaguely, her preexistence as a cat.
. . .
Applause. Feet tapping. Song. Laughter. If only he could see something of the party! But he could not. A prisoner in the darkness of the guitar, he lifted his gaze, looked up through the large hole, and saw only the enormous fingers that came down on the strings . . . and plucked them.
. . .
He found a postcard in his pocket. He had never seen it before. It was not addressed to him. Someone passing by had confused him with a mailbox. Or was he really a mailbox?
. . .
They were talking in the room, very animatedly.
“I don’t believe it,” interrupted Estela, who, until that time had remained quiet because she had not yet been born.
. . .
“I,” said one ghost to another, upon meeting in the attic of a very old big house, “am different from you: I have never died. I started by pretending to be a ghost, and look what happened.”
. . .
Other amnesiacs forget their name, their profession, their family. Samuel forgot that, being a man, he was unable to fly. He leaped up to pluck a fig, continued rising up through the air, and was lost in a cloud.
. . .
Nobody knew how the statues passed the word through the parks, museums, temples, and palaces of the most remote cities, but the strike was general. All of them, at the same time, dropped whatever they were carrying: mantles, weapons, even children—and undressed. Those who had always been in the nude were shocked at this sudden immodesty.

The Complaint

Once again the raven was out there waiting for me along the road. He dotted the i of the post. When I drew near he said to me, “Listen, stupid, can’t you avoid misfortunes on your own account? I’m fed up with playing this role of a bird of evil omen.”

A Heart Outlined

Montaigne (Essays, II, 13) relates that the Emperor Adrian ordered the doctor to indicate around the nipple the precise spot where the person charged with killing him must strike.
In the story En la señal by Luigi Pirandello, a girl, ill in the hospital, has the nurse outline for her the position of the heart, and afterwards, just there, drives in a stiletto.
In Colombia, real life contributes three situations to this literary tradition: one tragic, one tragicomic, and the third, comic.
The tragic situation was that of the poet José Asunción Silva. In the evening of the twenty-third of May, 1896, he asked his doctor to trace on his chest, with a dermographic marker, the form of the heart. There, some hours later, he discharged a bullet.
The tragicomic situation was that of Colonel Aureliano Buendía. Having been asked where the exact location of the heart was, his doctor listened to his heart and traced a tiny circle on his skin. Into this tiny circle, days later, the colonel shot his pistol; but he didn’t die. The doctor had traced for him “the unique point through which a bullet could pass without injury to a single vital center” (Gabriel García Márquez, Cien años de soledad).
The comic situation is that of a university student who started to write verses imitating Silva and, again imitating Silva, wanted to end his life. He visited the glorious tomb, SOON I WILL BE WITH YOU! inscribed on the marble, in front of a mirror painted his heart on his chest, and announced to a friend that he would commit suicide. The friend—Germán Arciniegas, who told me this story—without losing a minute told the father about the boy. The father, a good peasant from Antioquia, in turn wrote a letter to his son:
“I am told that you are going to imitate Silva also in the manner of his death. I respect your privacy. Everyone has the right to do what pleases him most. All that I would ask of you, if you are still determined, is that you do it before the first of July, the date on which I must pay for the second semester at the university, since it would be absurd . . .”
The boy changed his mind.
. . .

Imposture

Fate, with its right hand, gave a blessing to Valentino and, with its left hand, a curse. The blessing was that an unmarried uncle departed for the next life, leaving him a fortune. The curse was that, as he entered the bank, a terrorist bomb erased his face.
Valentino, before the blessing, had been an exquisite pauper, and he was an exquisite rich man after the curse. When he was poor, he covered up his poverty by disguising himself as a bohemian: he never paid his debts, he neglected his appearance, formed no relations with the bourgeoisie, showed no inclination to work; all this in order to be taken for a romantic type from Scènes la vie de Bohème by Murger and from La bohème by Puccini. Well then, as a rich man, in order to give his wealth an aura of aristocracy, Valentino, without ceasing to be romantic, disguised himself as gothic. He covered the horrible burns on his face with a mask of black velvet, and to make himself still more interesting, he wrapped his solitude in a mantle of mystery. Feeling himself to be the hero in a gothic novel, he used his money to buy himself an illusory world. He would have preferred to have recourse to the supernatural, as did the authors of the novels of terror which he loved passionately—Horace Walpole in The Castle of Otranto, for example—but, clearly, the supernatural could not be bought. So he had to be satisfied with appearances. He distorted reality by surrounding himself with weird objects. He abandoned old friends, reconstructed a mansion in San Isidro, and secluded himself, not as an anchorite but as a sybarite. He furnished the rooms with a scenic designer’s whims: curtains, mirrors, tapestries, screens. The pieces of furniture were restless: they were always anxious to be used in some different manner. The entire house acted like a body with a soul. Quarters for the sensual pleasure of every organ, for the spiritual pleasure of every urge: to live, to dream, to hide. On the roof, he installed an observatory so that he would not miss the stars of heaven. Looking out from the balcony, he would contemplate at his feet, as if it were the moat of the Castle of Otranto, an expanse of water diverted from the Rio de la Plata. Gothic novels also influenced the arrangement of a museum room, at the door of which a medieval suit of armor stood guard, lance in gauntlet. There was a library with the classic books dealing with madness, and a long hall which lent itself to concerts, ballet, and drama. It was assumed that Valentino was the observer, but it was he who, within himself, hoped that the musicians, dancers, and actors entertaining him were in fact the observers of the impudence with which he flourished his black velvet mask, his scarlet cape, his green sombrero and his golden cane.
The musicians, dancers, and actors could never talk with him. From the stage, they saw him stretched out in the only lounging chair in the empty hall. A small inaccessible island. Although they never managed to see Valentino’s eyes, the artists suspected that those eyes, through the mask, were judging them coldly. The masked man, at the conclusion of the concert, ballet, or drama, would applaud and, without more ado, exit with a kingly tread. The butler was entrusted with paying them.
In reality the butler was entrusted with everything. Knock-kneed, humpbacked, and hairy, he seemed to have escaped from the same gothic novels that inspired Valentino in the decoration of his grotesque residence. The two men understood each other without having to say a word. The servant guessed the desires of the master. A perfect relationship. The master, with his mask; the servant with his cardboard face; for that is the way it appeared, so impassive, imperturbable and expressionless was he.
Valentino’s life, no matter how reclusive, could not remain secret. Without wishing it and indeed without knowing it, he became famous. And with the years, his fame became legendary. Now it was not enough for the people to describe him as a mysterious eccentric; they endowed him with vices, sins, orgies. They did not always condemn him. At times, on the contrary, they envied him the sumptuous life they attributed to him.
Clemente, one of the actors in Valentino’s private theater, could not contain his envy. “How easy it would be,” he thought, “to kill him and take his place!” That multimillionaire hid his face behind a mask. (“Doesn’t he realize that carnival week is over?”) And he kept himself sealed in silence. (“Could he be mute?”) So, faceless and voiceless, nobody knew him. He, Clemente, at least knew something about him because, from the stage, he had occasion to observe his movements and measure his tastes and habits. They had the same physique, and, for an actor, what problem would there be in imitating his gestures? The real problem was in killing him and taking his place without the butler knowing it (luckily there was no hound in the house that with its fine nose would be able to discover that he was an intruder).
Clemente studied the comings and goings of the butler, and one Saturday morning, when he saw him go out on errands, he entered the mansion, killed the owner, stripped him, and took possession of the mask. For a moment, he contemplated the handsome face of the dead man. Then he dressed himself in his clothes, attached the mask and, as if the house had infected him with its gothic madness, placed the corpse inside the armor, and sank that heavy weight into the pseudo-medieval moat.
The butler returned with his purchases. Everything in order. Nothing had happened here. The routine of the mansion went on unaltered. The butler performed his duties, and Clemente adapted to his routine. What luxury, what refinement! This was certainly the good life!
So proud was Clemente of his imposture that he did not suspect that the identical idea had occurred to others. The masked man that he had murdered had not been Valentino but an impostor who, in turn, had assassinated another impostor. Each impostor believed that he was unique. Only months later, in a dark corner of the cellar, seeing an armed fist descend upon him, would Clemente understand that his destiny had been the continuation of a series of murders. A series similar to that of the lesser gods, who, according to the gnostics, replaced each other one by one.
No one in the mansion knew what was happening except the butler. He was keeping good account. He noted immediately the disappearance of the armor and at once deduced that a third impostor had just sunk the corpse of the second impostor inside it in the moat. With equal perspicacity the butler had noted that the soil in the garden was turned over where the second impostor had buried the first. And even before that, he had noted the bricks which, thanks to the masonry of the first impostor, had walled up Valentino in the rooftop observatory. He also noted empty spaces in the library shelves or changes in the reading habits of his master; without doubt the taste for gothic literature no longer prevailed. And he noted that the impostor, believing him asleep, from time to time would sneak off to the city to assure himself of a more normal life, if only for a few night hours. But the butler never unsealed his lips since his job as butler suited him very well. He refused to have hounds in the house precisely to prevent their noisy barking and olfactory indiscretions from disturbing the peace of his employment; a steady employment, like that of the phantoms who remain in the same castle while generations of the castle dwellers are renewed. And the truth is that the butler was almost as unreal as a phantom. At most he was the embodiment of a symbol: he was an element in the binomial system: “Servant plus master.” He formed part of a social institution. In such a combination of two persons, each had to trust the other. Neither should interfere with the other. The master of the moment should take care not to betray himself with one word too many. For his part, the servant should pretend not to know the personal identity of the men who successively employed him. Protected by his own mask of servant, what did it matter who was behind the mask of the master! The mask, like the crown in a monarchic rite—“The King is dead, long live the King!”—signified the continuance of the invariable in the variable.
Like an allegory without a key, wouldn’t you say?

The air and the man [Tr by Isabel Reade with Enrique Anderson-Imbert]

Amid laughter, lunch was ending. The children's eyes shone with delight when the maid came in with the dessert.
"Well!" exclaimed Diego, rubbing his hands with anticipation.
Suddenly, surprised, he looked at one of his fingers. "What's this?" he murmured.
On the tip of his little finger there had appeared a nick which was growing rapidly. One after the other they got up and surrounded the father as he watched, almost amused, how he was being left without a finger. Not even the tiniest little pain, not even one drop of blood. At every moment his little finger looked like the wax model of an amputation. And the voracity of the air was now eating the other fingers.
Then the man reached the stump of his wrist to the dessert.
"Oh, Daddy!" Carlitos reproached him. "You've made holes in our pudding."
The pudding was drilled with holes like a glove.
Nevertheless there were no fingers there. Nor a hand. And the sleeve now seemed an empty tube.
"Divide the pudding," the mother told the children, and she followed Diego to the bedroom.
Diego's arms had disappeared, and there was no longer any feeling there. But the invisible fingers must still be automatically carrying out their subtle movements, since coat, tie, and shirt came away from his body and dropped.
He looked at himself in the mirror, naked. Now the erosion was digging grottoes in his torso that went through him from one side to the other. And when the last clothes slipped to the floor Diego and his wife saw how the air was violently inundating the remains of his body. Rapid freshets were penetrating his flesh and devouring the islands.
Now the children were banging on the door. The smallest one began whimpering.
"Let them in," said Diego. His voice sounded calm.
Coming in, the children discovered their father's head smiling, suspended like a bubble lantern.
"Hello," he said to them with tenderness.
But from the smile there spouted a transparent rush of waves that went in through one eye and began quickly emptying his cranium. Nothing was left.
The wife, motionless, tense, was watching the air.
"Diego," she called in a very low voice.
And then she went forward with open arms, moving them from one side to the other, as one drags the river when searching for a corpse.

Selected Situations

THE CIGARETTE

The new cigarette vendor in the lobby -- thin, astute -- looked at him mockingly as he sold him the pack.
Juan went to his room, lay down on the bed to rest in the darkness and lighted a cigarette.
He felt himself being furiously inhaled. He could not resist. The cigarette was smoking him with violence; and it was blowing out frightful puffs of fragments of man turned into smoke.
On the bed his body was crumbling into ashes, from the feet up, as the room filled with purplish clouds.

THE CLOSED EYES

His students had become accustomed to the long pauses of the teacher Andert's look. He would lower his eyes, as though he wished to develop some snapshot in that darkroom; and he would stay behind his eyelids while the conversation continued around him. Thus he would go voyaging through the shadows. And on one of these voyages he died. For a while his death went unnoticed.
He seemed to be listening, sunken into the shadowy chair, his hands as though in prayer, with the classic bowing of the head ....
Everyone was expecting that from one moment to another he would open his eyes.
But he had already opened them ... on the other side. His eyes had bloomed in Being like two orchids in the insides of a rotted tree; and as in a lightning flash Andert's eyes had seen the face of God, face without eyes, because the eyes of God were those with which Andert had just discovered His blindness.

TABOO

His guardian angel whispered to Fabián, behind his shoulder: "Careful, Fabián! It is decreed that you will die the minute you pronounce the word doyen." "Doyen?" asks Fabián, intrigued. And he dies.

THE TOWER

Solness proposed this time to build the highest tower in the world, at whose mast would wave the green flag of our planet in its rotations before the box seats of the galaxy.
It was necessary to dig an abyss and fix into the spongy insides of the earth a foundation that would support the weight.
With workmen and cranes he burrowed down like a mole; and his ambition kept pushing him toward the antipodes. At each new depth he would imagine that the lookout of the skyscraper would rise nearer to the stars; and the stars he could now see from below at all hours, jumping with agile feet over the opening.
And in that gloomy niche and with the smell of firedamp they all died, at the top of an upside-down tower, lustrous as seeds.

THE CATHEDRAL

The god's wrath was instantaneous.
Mankind, and all that man had built, tore apart into a great foam of holes. Even velvet opened like fishnet.
Proud humanity and its civilization expanded this way to the last heights of the sky; and for a few seconds it stayed, immense and light, as though copied in clouds, until a cyclone snatched it away and made it whirl around the planet; and then came a downpour, which cleared the air and returned dust to dust.
The earth was relieved. The lizard, the banana tree, the spring, everything looked better to the god. Of mankind there was left only a cathedral, the humblest, which rolled on the grass as after a beheading.
And there the cathedral began its dreaming.
In time it grew a beard of moss, eyelids of cobweb, a pale saint's forehead, mysteries under the cranium.
The god used to take a walk in the late afternoon, sad, remorseful. He stopped before the great skull of the cathedral and sighed. The cathedral, absorbed in itself, was contemplating the fields with nostalgic eyes and still dreaming about men who build cathedrals.

THE SUICIDE

At the foot of the open Bible -- where was marked in red the verse that would explain everything -- he aligned the letters: to his wife, to the judge, to his friends. Then he drank the poison and went to bed.
Nothing. In an hour he got up and looked at the bottle. Yes, it was the poison. He was so sure! He increased the dosage and drank another glass. He went back to bed. Another hour. He was not dying. Then he shot his revolver against his temple. What joke was this? Someone -- but who, when? -- someone had exchanged his poison for water, his bullets for blank cartridges. He shot the four other bullets against his temple. Useless. He closed the Bible, gathered up the letters and went out of the room just as the owner of the hotel, servants and curious people were running up, alarmed at the noise of the five shots.
Arriving at his house he found his wife poisoned and his five children on the floor, each with a bullet wound in the temple.
He took the kitchen knife, bared his stomach and began slashing at himself. The blade would sink into the soft flesh and then come out clean as water, and the flesh would regain its smoothness like water after a fish is caught.
He poured naphtha over his clothes and the matches would go out hissing.
He ran to the balcony, and before jumping he could see a crowd of men and women lying in the street, bleeding from their knifed stomachs, amid the flames of the burning city.

THE BRIBE

Carlos was seven years old. They were having dinner when suddenly, with a rapid movement so that his parents would not notice, he took a bone from his plate and tossed it over his shoulder to the dog.
"Ah, ah! Don't do that. Never, never!" his mother told him. "You might hit your Guardian Angel. Perhaps you've hit him already. In the eye. Do you think it would be nice to go around with a one-eyed angel?"
Carlos turned around and saw the air wincing. This was how he learned there was always a Guardian Angel behind him. From then on he grew up obedient, frustrated, and sad. The Angel followed him everywhere. Each time Carlos was about to do something bad, he would hear his golden voice: "Don't do this, don't do that."
Once -- he was fifteen then -- he was cutting bunches of grapes when the owner came and slapped his face. Carlos, quick as a snake, plunged the knife in his heart.
Ohhh! Now what?
He turned and spoke to his Guardian Angel.
"Yes. I know you're there. That you spy on me, that you saw me, that you'll go tattling to God. But you see this?" and he showed him the knife, "brand new, steel, with blood on it. You've never had one like it, have you? All right: I'll give it to you if you'll keep my secret."
The Guardian Angel accepted the bribe and went away happily, playing with the glimmers of the knife.
God never knew about Carlos' crime (he didn't even miss the angel, who never again went back to heaven).
But Carlos, erased from the sight of God and without an angel, all the same felt the bite of remorse. Would it be God, the Angel, operetta policemen? The bribe had been of no use: his conscience had voices of its own.

ECONOMY

The Angel said to him: "Listen well, Cristobalón. You have been granted what you asked: from now on you can perform all the miracles you want. But: each miracle will shorten your life. How much? I don't know."
Cristobalón, very happy, set about economizing. And died a nonagenarian, without having spent even one tiny miracle.

MICROSCOPY

We thought what was hanging on the wall was some kind of tusk, but our tiny host explained that no, it was nothing less than his first baby tooth. It seemed incredible, but evidently he must have been a giant and was shrinking, year after year. Now, at fifty, he was the size of a beetle. He kept, however, his graceful human figure. He accompanied us to the rain-washed street and before leaving we saw him swimming vigorously in a puddle. He shouted to us, as he buffeted the waves, that the next time we came to see him we should bring a microscope.

THE EXILE

Federico took the train and went home to Belgrano, outside Buenos Aires. It was night. His wife, his children would be waiting for him now. He saw the sign on the station: b-e-l-g-r-a-n-o. He stepped off the train and began walking. Suddenly he no longer recognized the streets. Everything had changed: streets, buildings, gardens, everything except the station. At the corner where his house should be was another. It was whitewashed before, now it was red brick; before it had a tree in front, now a mailbox stood there, painted like an American flag. But the door was the same. He went in. Seated around a table covered with glasses and brandy bottles, some movie gangsters were shooting dice. They looked at him fiercely and shouted something he could not understand. He understood only that they were shouting at him in English. His heart turned over. He realized that that night the suburb of Belgrano, with a great leap, had changed places with another suburb come from the devil knows where. He was in a suburb that had come flying to trap him. He wanted to flee toward the station. He ran, but without moving. And while he was running and running without moving one step forward, the gangsters laughed uproariously, came slowly toward him, surrounded him, looked at his uselessly speeding legs and one of them seized him with both hands and began squeezing him, kneading, compressing, shaping, modeling. They were making him smaller, smaller .... Now he was only a dot. A dot on a die. They put him, along with other dice, in the dicebox, and the gangsters went on playing. Federico was waiting for his turn. Sometime his dot would have to come out, face up, on the die! But one game ended and another began, and he did not come out. The combinations would repeat and his failure would repeat: the die would give a turn in the air and clickety-click! the dot would fall face down. The cheater had loaded the die. When he awoke he was not in Belgrano: he was in Chicago.

THE LAST JUDGMENT

Raúl made friends with his Guardian Angel. They talked together for hours and hours. About history, art, philosophy . . . One day the Angel -- who was a tattler -- revealed the secret to him:
"The Last Judgment will begin with trumpet calls, but it will be slow. All the oranges will form one ideal orange. All the emeralds will enter into one pure emerald. All the men will crowd together into an archetype of man .... And so with everything. When the innumerable things, well classified, have been reduced to single pieces, God will keep them as a museum."

JUST TO INTRIGUE US

In the corridors of a liberal arts college there is a little of everything: the lunatic, the genius, the bookworm, the pedant, the wild man, the Don Juan, the half-wit, the timid soul, the man who is always wrong.
Octavio was the mysterious one.
He walked on tiptoe, as though at that very moment he were about to surprise a sleeping truth. His shoulder was slanted forward, like a chess-game bishop. He joined his fingers delicately as though carrying, held by their wings, invisible butterflies. His sidelong glances, his insinuating smiles, the coquetry of his eyebrows made him effeminate. With the blade of his voice he seemed to want to split hairs in two, but he would never complete an idea. He would never give of himself.
("I know what I'm talking about . . ."; "Ah, if I told you . . ."; "Some day you'll see . . ."; "Believe me, you're wrong . . ."; "Yesterday ... oh well . . . nothing . . . what's the use? . . . you wouldn't understand me . . .")
He was dying for attention, and took on the form of flight to incite us to follow him. He would come up to a group of students, see what they were talking about and interrupt with a sentence like this:
"As for me, I like the best Góngora."
And whoosh! he would be gone without telling us which.
Or: "Of the three Baroques, the second one sets my teeth on edge. Really. I can't stand it."
And, just like that, he would leave.
If someone demanded explanations about what was this second Baroque -- and even what were the other two -- Octavio would turn his head without slowing down, lower his eyes, smile compassionately and indicate, with a slight wave of the hand, that it wasn't worth the trouble to add another word. He was too patronizing for dialectics.
I was annoyed by his practice of half-finished witticisms. When Octavio began to see that I had lost interest in his enigmas he must have felt humiliated. Whatever the reason, he began to solicit my friendship. I paid no attention. He resorted to laughter: in him it sounded like the first spattering, when it begins to rain, on a dry newspaper forgotten in the patio. I would not ask him what he was laughing at. He resorted to the photograph trick: he would take them out of his pocket, look at them with expressions of relishment, as at forbidden nakednesses. I showed no curiosity at all. Octavio, desperate. One day I was in the library reading a lucubration by the eminent and provincial Father Nimio de Anquín, when Octavio came straight toward me.
"Hello," he said.
I didn't answer him, didn't look at him.
He stayed an instant reading over my shoulder. Suddenly he thrust his hand toward the book, marked a passage with his thumbnail and shouted, extremely excited:
"Read this, read this! Now there's no room for me!"
And instantly he shot himself in the temple.
The carpet, without avidity, began sipping his blood.
I copied that passage marked by his nail (nail that must have kept on growing by itself, feeding on the corpse):
"The essential knowledge of the absolute obiectum demands the nullification of every Other. But it signifies the immolation of the cognoscente, that is, the auto-immolation of the Other, which is absorbed or swallowed by the abyss of the Same in its infinite process of mismification."
I carry this passage with me always. I read it constantly. Each time I understand it less. I know it is useless to search there for the cause of Octavio's suicide: he killed himself, purely and simply, because he wanted to intrigue us. But now, every time I read that passage, I sense that Octavio haunts it and is laughing at me as he peeps through the holes of the O's.

DIALOGUE WITH THE PURSUER

In the mirrors Ramón caught a glimpse of someone watching him from behind. Also, behind him, he could hear a rustling, feel a breathing. If he turned around, nothing. But he began to talk to his pursuer, all the time. And he ended by walking sideways, like a crab. This is how we knew him, curved to the right, his head twisted, his mouth murmuring to one side, streaming blue from one strangely enlarged eye, in dialogue with the invisible demon who was always treading on his heels.
submitted by MilkbottleF to shortstoryaday [link] [comments]


2020.05.06 08:04 Catarona12 What Makes Dating and a Kiss Extra Special in Chicago?

Romance kiss. The history of mankind could not deny that it is something irresistible. Yes, even a heart of callous allowed it to prick him once in his life or more. And, it all starts with a really romantic date. And, where could be that spot of the world is?
Chicago is a spot where lovers could feel free and show to the oblate-spherical world the rush of love they share. What about kissing while in this land of romance? A kiss says it all, right? So, to all lovers, drop those hesitations down. Visit Chicago hold your partner’s waist or chin and seal the day with the most unforgettable kiss. But wait, for a kiss to be worth-cherishing, a warm-gravitating-serene venue would set the mood for loving.
Explore the beauty of the aquatic life outside the ocean; visit the world’s largest aquarium, the Chicago Oceanarium. Show the bookworm in you; grab and read a book at the world’s largest public library, the Harold Washington Library Center. Let go of that wild appetite; fill up your plate with mouth-watering food during the world’s largest food festival; the Taste of Chicago food fest. Express your love for the performing arts; go to the world’s largest stand-alone theater, the Uptown Theater. All of these enigmatic wonders will surely trap your breath and get you addicted with the fine, warm and romantic place in one of the states of America, Chicago.
A candlelit dinner while your theme song is being played from a flamenco guitar is simply irresistible. You can have the kiss of your life at Geja’s Café. It is located at 340 W Avenue, Chicago IL.
Are you fond of stealing kisses? Vivo is the place for both of you. Find your way to 838 W Randolph St, Chicago IL and see for your self what a private table and a converted elevator shaft change the way you see your partner now.
Do you want to show off your alluring spouse to the eyes of many? Is kissing in a public place the best for you? Buckingham fountain must be your place for that hot kiss. It is not only one of Chicago’s known landmarks but in its midst lies a gravity that pulls lovers to make picture-perfect kisses. It is at Grant Park, Chicago, IL.
Are you fixated with your childhood? If you want to bring out the kids in both of you, why not share a kiss while you feel the air on a Ferris wheel? The city skyline is the best backdrop. Pull her hands and look for Navy Pier Ferris wheel. It is located at 600 E. Grand Avenue, Chicago IL.
Most of us are afraid of the dark. However, this principle vanishes into thin air if you spend the beauty of the darkness with the one you adore the most, right? Imagine glass doors and behind it in the Asian art section, a meditative gallery is just too dark. Imagining it sends one to orbit, how much more if you are right there? The Art Institute of Chicago awaits you. Go take a cab to 111 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL.
Do your hormones go untamed when you get tipsy? Drop lust, welcome passion as the low-lit jazzy atmosphere of Pops for champagne at 2934 N. Sheffield Ave., Chicago, IL will naturally end your night with a lip-lock.
It is undeniable that a kiss itself sounds special but if you consider going to these places with your sweetheart, you will unravel the truth that it tastes even better!
What are you waiting for?
Go to Chicago. Have the date of your life. Kiss… Fall in love
All over again…
submitted by Catarona12 to OnlineDating [link] [comments]


2020.04.30 09:25 elitecollegethroaway AMA: 20 Things I Wish I Knew Before Going to an Elite College

Hey there! I graduated from a mid-ranked Ivy a few years ago. Below is a list of 20 things I wish I knew before going to an elite college. This advice applies to anyone attending an elite college or university (eg. Michigan, Colby, WashU, Georgetown, MIT, Claremont McKenna, Amherst, Brown, ect.) next year.
First, a little bit about myself. I had a decent college experience that was amazing in many ways and less good in others. After graduation, I moved to DC and worked in politics for a couple years. This fall, I applied to law school, and I’ve been accepted to a number of good programs. I’m currently deciding among UChicago, Columbia, and NYU.
I'm also happy to answer questions as well, so feel free to ask away (after glancing through the questions I've already answered). Without further ado, here is the list!
  1. It doesn’t matter which elite college or university you go to.
A lot of people agonize over the fact that they didn’t get into Harvard and have to settle for Cornell, or that they didn’t get into MIT and have to go to Carnegie Mellon. Honestly, the truth is that where you go to school doesn’t matter so long as you go to an elite college or university. Today, the great news is that there are so many elite colleges and universities that provide the same quality education and similar professional and graduate school opportunities (see list of colleges and universities above).
For example, if one person goes to Colgate, another person goes to Harvard, and both people major in economics and apply to PhD programs in economics after they graduate, they’ll both have similar odds at getting into elite PhD programs assuming their GPAs, research experience, and faculty recommendations are similar. If the Colgate guy has better grades, better research experience, and better faculty recommendations, he’ll get accepted to a better economics PhD program than the Harvard guy.
The same is true for other grad schools (eg. law, medicine, business, ect.) and jobs (eg. Facebook, Goldman Sachs, McKinsey). So long as you go to an elite college or university, you’ll have largely the same opportunities as someone else who went to a slightly higher ranked elite college or university.
Additionally, people (who matter, such as employers and grad schools) largely view elite college grads from all elite schools as equally smart regardless of the elite school they attended. For example, when I meet someone from Princeton and someone from UVA, I’m not automatically more impressed with the Princeton guy, and I don’t automatically think the Princeton guy is smarter than the UVA guy. Instead, there’s more of an elite college/non-elite college dichotomy in my mind and in the minds of most elite college alumni and most employers. In other words, if I meet someone who went to WVU and someone who went to UVA, Princeton, Pomona, or Emory, I automatically DO think the non-elite college WVU guy is dumber than the elite college guy from any elite school (sorry, but it’s the truth!). However, I don’t really distinguish among the elite college guys based on the schools they attended. Instead, I distinguish them based on their intellect, personality, and professional success.
  1. All of the students at one highly ranked elite school aren’t necessarily smarter than all of the students at another slightly lower ranked elite school.
Yup, this is definitely true. Just because your high school classmate’s going to Harvard and you’re going to Cornell doesn’t mean that one year from now, two years from now, three years from now, or four years from now your high school classmate will be “smarter” than you. During college everyone grows intellectually and some grow more than others regardless of which school they attend. This means that you could graduate from Cornell with a 3.8 GPA while your high school buddy at Harvard might not adapt too well to college and might only pull a 3.4. Guess who’s “smarter” and has better professional and grad school opportunities when you graduate college? You, the Cornell guy! The same is true even if you attended Colby or UVA while your high school classmate went to Harvard.
  1. Higher ranked elite colleges aren’t necessarily more difficult academically than lower ranked elite colleges.
Yup, this one’s also true. Just because Harvard’s acceptance rate is twice as low as Amherst’s acceptance rate doesn’t make Harvard students twice as smart as Amherst students or Harvard classes twice as hard as Amherst classes. Honestly, the students at both schools are likely equally smart and the classes are probably about the same in terms of academic rigor.
That being said, there are some schools that are known for grade deflation, such as Columbia, UChicago, and Princeton. These schools are likely more academically rigorous than places like Dartmouth or Harvard, but their academic rigor stems less from their ranking and selectivity and more from their administrative policies and academic traditions that reinforce grade deflation.
  1. Even if you didn’t get admitted to an elite college or university, your life is not over.
Even if you didn’t do so well in high school grade-wise or got unlucky in college admissions, don’t panic. Your life is not over. You can still get into a top-notch grad school and/or get a top notch job and have phenomenal opportunities for the rest of your life.
I know many people who have done this. One of my professors at my Ivy league school who has a Wikipedia page (yup, he’s that famous in his field!) went to a bad California public college for undergrad and ended up getting a PhD from and a professorship at an Ivy League school. Similarly, one kid from my high school did really poorly academically in high school, got his s*** together at a tiny, no-name liberal arts college, and now attends Stanford Law School. Heck, I didn’t even get admitted to Stanford Law when I applied this fall while he did! It just comes to show that you can’t rest on your laurels if you do get into an Ivy League undergrad school, and you can’t be down on yourself if you don’t.
Suffice to say that if you’re dying to get that elite college or Ivy League degree, you’ll have plenty of opportunities to do so after undergrad. Most Ivies have great grad schools that you can attend later on in life. Or, to really spice things up, go abroad to Oxford, Cambridge, or LSE and get that one year British master degree immediately following college graduation! Tons of Americans do this.
  1. If you have multiple acceptances from elite colleges, pick the elite college where you feel you would fit in best.
Deposit day is right around the corner for most schools, and if you’re still agonizing over which elite college to choose, here’s a simple pro tip: pick the elite college where you’ll be happiest. For example, if you were admitted to Cornell and Georgetown and you believe that you would be happier at Georgetown compared to Cornell but are worried that “Georgetown isn’t an Ivy!”, go to Georgetown. Both schools are close enough in prestige that it doesn’t really matter which one you choose. Because you believe you’ll fit in better at Georgetown, you’ll be happier there, make more friends there, and get better grades there, which will create more future opportunities for you than you would have gotten had you chased the Ivy League label and gone to Cornell instead.
I say this from personal experience. While I enjoyed my college in many ways and would still recommend it to many potential students, I believe that I would have been happier at Williams or Amherst, and I would have gotten the same exact opportunities at both schools that I got at my school.
That being said, if you are admitted to a non-elite school (eg. OSU, UF, Ole Miss, ect.) and an elite school, if finances/student loans aren’t an issue, definitely choose the elite school over the non-elite school. I have nothing against non-elite schools, but the truth is that you will not get the same opportunities at these schools that you will at elite colleges. For this reason, if finances aren’t an issue, always pick the elite school.
  1. If you have multiple acceptances from elite colleges, pick the elite college that aligns best with your future goals.
If you’re still having trouble choosing which elite college to attend, consider which one will most align with your future goals. For example, if you were admitted to Dartmouth and Rice, and you are dead-set on living in Houston for the rest of your life, go to Rice. Why? Because a much larger proportion of your potential college friends from Rice will settle in Houston after college, and you’ll have a much larger network of friends in your city, which will make life more enjoyable and help you advance in whichever career you choose.
If you want to live abroad, make sure you choose a school that has a stronger international brand reputation. For example, if you’re choosing between Williams and Georgetown, and you’re 100% sure that you want to live abroad for a significant portion of your life, you should probably choose Georgetown (unless you absolutely hate it) because far more people abroad will know Georgetown than Williams.
In general, a plurality of graduates from each elite school tend to cluster in one or two cities. For Dartmouth and all the New England Ivies/Little Ivies, it’s Boston and NYC (and SF to a lesser extent). For Penn, it’s Philly and NYC (and SF to a lesser extent). For Princeton and Columbia, it’s NYC (and SF to a lesser extent). For UVA and Georgetown, it’s DC (and NYC to a lesser extent). For Berkeley and Stanford, it’s SF and LA (and NYC to a lesser extent). For Northwestern, UChicago, Notre Dame, and WashU, it’s Chicago (and NYC to a lesser extent). For Duke and Emory, it’s Atlanta (and DC/NYC to a lesser extent).
Does this mean that there are no elite college alums from your elite college in non-feeder cities? No! Of course there are alums in these cities, and these cities will likely have alumni clubs that you can join. However, chances are that the majority of your future friends at whichever elite school you attend will likely follow the crowd to the feeder city(ies) that most alums from your school go to after graduation. Definitely keep this in mind as you choose which college to attend.
Internationally, most larger American elite schools (eg. non liberal arts colleges) will have solid alumni networks and alumni clubs in London and Hong Kong. Other cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, Singapore, Paris, Berlin, and Dubai may have alumni, but there might not be a large, active alumni club, so if you want to live in these locations, it’s definitely a good idea to choose a university with more name recognition internationally (eg. Berkeley over Amherst, unless you hate Berkeley) that will make you recognizable to people you may meet and befriend while living in one of these cities.
  1. Attending an elite college or university for undergrad does NOT guarantee that you’ll be admitted to an elite college or university for grad school.
Attending an elite school for undergrad does not give you a free pass in grad school admissions. Sure, it makes grad school admissions easier compared to the guy applying to grad school from University of Detroit or Frostburg State, but you still have to earn your spot in grad school, and you can’t just coast based on the prestige of your elite undergrad school.
For example, since all med schools are really selective (eg. <10% acceptance rate), most of my classmates from my Ivy in medical school attend places like Iowa, Rutgers, and Texas Tech. Did a couple get admitted to Harvard and Columbia? Sure, but only one or two. While these lesser ranked schools aren’t necessarily housed in prestigious universities, all of my classmates at these med schools are guaranteed to have stable, high-paying jobs for life, regardless of which one they attend. That is definitely an enviable position to be in, so they’re certainly doing very well for themselves.
For law school, graduating from an elite undergrad school definitely gives you a bit of a bump, but not a massive one. For example, if the median college GPA of admitted students at a law school that you’re applying to is a 3.9, then you’ll be competitive with a 3.8 or a 3.85 instead of a 3.9 by virtue of the fact that you went to an elite school. Suffice to say that it’s a bit of a bump, but not a massive one. However, by attending an elite school, you’ve likely gotten a lot of opportunities to polish the soft side of your application (eg. extracurriculars, recommendations, ect.) due to the sheer amount of resources available at elite schools. This soft part of your application will stand out more compared to applicants who didn’t attend elite schools. In general, I’d say more than three quarters of my classmates who applied to law school from my Ivy got accepted to T14 law schools. However, nearly one quarter didn’t, and several opted out of the application process altogether because they knew that they wouldn’t get into a T14 school.
Other grad programs elite college graduates regularly attend include business school, public policy/international affairs school, and PhDs. While attending elite colleges raises your chances slightly for admission to these elite grad schools, it does not guarantee that you’ll be admitted to Harvard Business School, Princeton’s Woodrow Wilson School (public policy/international affairs), or Stanford’s PhD in Computer Science. Heck, attending an elite undergrad doesn’t 100% guarantee that you’ll get admitted to UT Austin’s MBA program or University of Washington’s Computer Science masters program.
This means that you can’t rest on your laurels. You still have to work hard and earn your spot at an elite grad school.
  1. If you’re burnt out from high school, take a gap year.
I really wish I had taken a gap year after high school. I went to a very competitive high school where lots of kids go to elite colleges and universities, and I was really burnt out when I showed up at college. While I did well academically my freshman year, I really believe that I would have benefitted from some time off.
For this reason, I’d highly recommend that you take a gap year if you’re burnt out. However, just because you’re taking a gap year doesn’t mean that you should be unproductive and do nothing. Instead, take some online courses, do a remote internship, or learn a foreign language. You won’t have many more opportunities in your life when you have several months without any commitments, so take advantage of that time to be with family and learn a new skill or hobby.
  1. If you want to learn a new foreign language, start taking classes in that foreign language the moment you arrive at your elite college.
If you always had a burning desire to learn Russian, Mandarin, Italian, Japanese, or any other language for that matter, but your high school didn’t offer classes in that language, guess what? Your elite college likely does and now is by far the best and easiest time in your life to learn that language. You will never again in your life have four years when you can consistently and easily devote yourself to learning a new foreign language. If you start a new language during your first semester freshman year and take a course in that language every single semester during your entire time in college (including a semester abroad with language immersion), I guarantee that you’ll reach at least intermediate proficiency in that foreign language by the time you graduate, even if that language is Russian or Mandarin.
  1. Elite colleges and universities only provide you with a limited set of (really good) careers options.
Oh boy, this is definitely a piece of information I wish I knew before attending my school. This information might be a bit of a downer for some, but attending an elite college or university will not open doors to every single career you’ve dreamed of. In general, elite universities feed people into five or six different careers through their career and grad school advising offices.
First, they’ll provide you opportunities to work on Wall Street (or other financial centers, such as Houston, San Francisco, Chicago, and Atlanta, depending on where your school is located) in investment banking. Investment bankers, or IBankers for short, usually work for large banks that were bailed out during the Great Recession, such as JP Morgan, Bank of America, and Goldman Sachs. IBankers help companies sell stock and bonds and revalue themselves after merging with other companies or selling off portions of their own company. That one sentence explanation is a vast oversimplification of IBanking, so keep that in mind. On a daily basis, IBankers create excel spreadsheets and powerpoint slides. They work crazy hours (eg. 60-70 hours per week, plus work on the weekends), but they also get paid a lot of money right out of college (eg. $100,000+ first year). If this appeals to you, check out Wall Street Oasis (WSO), which has by far the most resources and information for those who want to work on Wall Street. If this doesn’t sound appealing to you, there are a few other options to consider.
Elite universities also provide their students and graduates with jobs in management consulting. Management consultants work in teams of five to ten people and advise senior management (eg. CEOs, executive VPs, COOs, MDs, ect.) at large companies on the strategy and operations of their companies. Each week, consultants fly out to their client from the city they (the consultants) live in (eg. NYC, Boston, San Francisco, ect.). Usually, the client is located in pretty uneventful places like Spartanburg, South Carolina, so don’t get your hopes up about jetting over to Dubai or Miami and sipping martinis for the week. That’s not going to happen. Like IBankers, management consultants are glorified excel and powerpoint monkeys. Their hours are better than IBankers, and they usually do not have much weekend work. In order to land a consulting gig at a top firm (eg. McKinsey, Bain, and BCG, which are the Harvard, Yale, and Princeton of consulting), you’ll need to earn at least a 3.8 GPA or you’ll need to major in a hard STEM subject and pull above a 3.5 GPA. Otherwise, they probably won’t interview you even though you go to Williams, Harvard, or some other elite school. Still, you could land a consulting offer with a lower GPA at a less prestigious firm or a boutique firm, and you’ll have a pretty similar experience. In other words, your elite college will provide you opportunities in management consulting so long as your college GPA isn’t terrible. If you want to learn more about management consulting, check out Management Consulted and WSO’s forum on management consulting.
Elite schools also open up doors in the tech world. If you’re a whiz at computer science, you’ll have a strong shot at landing a software engineering job at Google, Facebook, Amazon, or another large tech company, provided that you can pass the coding interview. If you aren’t good enough to pass the coding interview at these places, rest assured as there are still plenty of other software job opportunities to choose from at less well known companies and startups, so you’ll graduate with a job making at least $70,000 and probably upwards of $100,000 if you play your cards right. Prestigious tech companies (eg. Apple) also have non-software jobs that your career services office at your elite school may enable you to recruit for. These positions are notoriously difficult to land because the barriers to entry are low (you don’t need technical skills), but you’ll at least have a better shot than most people at them because you attend an elite school.
Elite schools also help you win fellowships, such as Fulbrights and Teach for America. Your elite school likely has a fellowship office or a person in your career services office devoted to fellowships who can advise you. This advisor is typically not available at less prestigious institutions.
Elite schools also funnel students into professional graduate schools, especially law school and medical school. I’m not going to discuss either of these options here because I’ve already discussed both at length in another question above.
On the other hand, here is what elite schools do NOT provide career-wise. Elite schools do NOT provide special opportunities in politics on Capitol Hill or at the UN. They do NOT have a bunch of job postings in journalism at the NY Times or the Washington Post. They do NOT open tons of doors in entertainment and Hollywood. They do NOT offer tons of professional opportunities for musicians and artists. Sorry to burst your bubble, but attending Harvard or any other elite school isn’t going to get you a job at the UN, NY Times, Hollywood, or the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Career services won’t do jack for you if those are your career goals (except maybe help you land an unpaid internship). Instead, you’ll have to hustle on your own and network a ton to land those opportunities. It’s better for you to receive this tough love now than later on, even if it’s a bit of a downer to hear this.
Instead, maybe you always dreamed of being an English or History professor? Sorry to break it to you, but even if you’re talented enough to be a humanities professor (which you probably are) and even if you get into Harvard for your humanities PhD, the job market is so bad for humanities professors that you probably won’t get a job as a professor no matter how hard you try. The job market is marginally better for aspiring hard science and social science professors, but it’s still tough. If you really want to be a professor, go get a PhD in business after undergrad. While you probably won’t land a professorship at Harvard, there are tons of business professorships available at other schools, and you’ll almost certainly land one if you work hard. Again, sorry for the downer, but it’s better to be blunt and brutally honest than to lie to you and not tell you the truth.
  1. Be social and join extracurriculars once you arrive at your elite college or university, but don’t overextend yourself.
If you were shy and just studied a lot in high school, make sure you break out of your shell and be social once you arrive by joining and participating in a couple (more than one, but not 50+) extracurriculars and clubs on a very regular basis. If you feel social anxiety because you’re in a brand new place where half the kids were valedictorians or salutatorians at their high schools, don’t sweat it because your classmates are all feeling the same anxiety you’re feeling. My best advice to you is fake it ‘til you make it. Make sure to stand up straight, look your fellow classmates in the eyes, and smile. If you do those three things, you’ll be fine.
  1. Be aware of social hierarchies on campus and within your extracurriculars and clubs, but don’t be a social climber who spends their entire college life climbing these social hierarchies to the exclusion of everything else.
Once you arrive on campus, make sure you acquaint yourself with social hierarchies on campus and within your extracurriculars and clubs. For example, which clubs tend to be more popular? Which clubs are less mainstream (and frowned upon)? Ask yourself how people will perceive you if you join one club or another. Do some clubs feed into other clubs (eg. all members of the football team join one specific fraternity)? Who are the most influential people in the clubs you joined? How about the least influential?
At the same time, don’t be a shallow social climber who only cares about social status. People who only social climb end up miserable because they don’t form genuine friendships based on shared interests and values. Plus, social climbers don’t realize that at the end of four years once everyone graduates, the social hierarchy that existed on campus no longer matters at all as an alumnus or alumna of your elite college. Literally no one cares what sports team or fraternity or sorority you were in after you graduate. It sounds so “third grade” to talk about those things as alumni.
Nevertheless, make sure that you do not find yourself at the bottom of the social hierarchy while you’re in school (except initially WITHIN your extracurricular clubs where you’ll de facto have to start at the bottom as a new student and member in the club). You will definitely pay a big price socially while you’re in school if you’re at the bottom socially, and you will definitely be less happy. The good news is that it’s very easy to not be at the bottom. Just have your social antenna up, be socially aware, and don’t join unpopular clubs that have a strong social stigma on campus.
  1. Be strategic about the classes you take and the professors you choose.
In order to earn a high GPA, make sure you choose your classes and professors carefully. Some classes and professors are notorious for their harsh grading while others are much easier, and you should do everything you can to avoid the harder classes and professors. If you want to figure out which classes and professors are difficult, just ask an upperclassman majoring in a particular subject which ones they would avoid in their specific major.
Also, I’d highly recommend asking upperclassmen which classes and professors are the best. During fall semester, make it a point to ask five different upperclassmen which classes/professors were their favorite. Keep a list of these classes and professors and consider taking them if they align with your interests or distribution requirements.
  1. Take classes in your strongest subject areas during your first semester of freshman year.
Attending an elite college is a big bump up in terms of academic rigor compared to high school. If you take humanities and social science classes, you will have more reading than you’ve ever had before in an academic environment, and if you take science and math classes, you will have harder problem sets and exams than you’ve ever experienced in high school. As a first year student, you will likely be in class with some upperclassmen who have one, two, and three years of elite college academic experience under their belts. This means that they will likely be more skilled academically than the average freshman, and it will be harder, but certainly not impossible, for first year students like you to perform as well as they, especially in subject areas you know little about.
For this reason, I would highly recommend that you take classes in subject areas that you are really strong in during the first semester of your first year. If you were a US History buff in high school, then take an American history class. If you crushed it in AP French last year, then take French. If you’ve read tons of American literature, then take an American literature class. If you love stats, take a stats class.
  1. Don’t be a “know it all” or a “try hard” in class.
Don’t be the “know it all” who always raises their hand to answer every question in class. Don’t be the “try hard” who tries to demonstrate that they're smarter than everyone else. People who behave this way are off-putting and have toxic personal brands and bad reputations on all elite college campuses. Don’t be one of those guys.
On the other hand, do make an insightful comment (or two, or three, depending on the class) every class if you’re in a discussion-oriented class (then shut up). Do go to office hours and forge strong relationships with your professors. Do participate in study groups with other students. Do write good essays and perform well on midterms and final exams. Do your best academically and earn good grades.
  1. Invest time in dating.
Your four years at an elite college will be by far the easiest time to date during your entire life. You will be surrounded by hundreds to thousands of other smart, horny kids who are away from home for the first time and are keen to try new things. If you’re showing up to college as a virgin, guess what? So is the majority of your class, so you’re in good company, and there’s nothing to be embarrassed about.
If you’re confused or unclear about how to date, here are a couple simple tips that may be helpful whether you’re a guy or a girl. If you fancy someone in one of your classes or clubs, make sure you build a little rapport with them by engaging in small talk a couple times so they know who you are (which you’ve probably/hopefully done before/after class or during club activities). Remember to stand up straight, smile (not in a cheesy, contrived way), and look them in the eyes when you talk to them (and everyone else for that matter). Then, ask them casually to grab lunch (or coffee if students at your elite college grab coffee regularly) by saying something like, “Hey, let’s grab lunch some time!” Remember, in romance, especially if you’re a guy, never “ask” to do something; instead, suggest doing something by saying “Let’s do this” or “Let’s do that.”
If they say no, they’re probably not interested in you romantically even if they think you’re a good person, so don’t take it personally and instead move on to another person. Luckily, there are hundreds to thousands of other people that you can date at your elite school, so don’t worry. However, don’t ask out several people in one club or one class during the span of a week or two. You’ll come across as creepy if you do this.
If they say yes to lunch or coffee, you’ll probably exchange phone numbers with them and set up a time for lunch/coffee. You might even go to lunch together right then and there. After you grab lunch/coffee with them once or twice, study buddy with them if they’re in your class or collaborate together on a project for your club. Be somewhat subtle about your intentions at this point, but don’t be subtle for too long, which could put you in the friendzone.
Then, if things are going smoothly, and you sense that they’re also interested in you romantically (eg. they sit really closely to you, text you all the time about non-school related stuff, talk about sex/romance with you, hug you, and/or physically touch you in sexual or non-sexual places) study buddy or work together with them in a common area of your dorm once and/or invite them to a party. Then, if that goes well, invite them to work together in your room or bring them back to your room, and the two of you will probably end up making out and/or hooking up. Always make sure you have consent during this last step. From there, you can convert this encounter into a relationship and have a boyfriend or girlfriend if you would like.
Investing time in dating now while you’re at an elite college when it’s easy and accessible will make you more effective at dating later in life after college when you interact with many fewer people and dating is not as easy.
  1. Elite colleges don’t teach you how to network, but learning how to network is incredibly important.
Networking is an incredibly important skill that you won’t learn in your classes at an elite college. In order to excel personally, professionally, and socially as a student and graduate of an elite college, it’s essential that you take the time to learn how to network efficiently and effectively.
If you’re unsure where to start, here are a few simple tips that will help you become an effective networker. First, before you contact anyone, make a list of a few (two to four, not 10+) professional fields that you would like to work in. These might be finance, law, medicine, politics, or tech to name a few. Then, make a list of everyone you and your family know who either (a) lives in the city or location where you want to work and has a solid professional career in any field or (b) works in the field(s) you want to work in but lives in any location.
Once you have this list, contact all of these people (usually by email), tell them that you’re looking for career advice and ask them if they’d be willing to speak with you over the phone to give you advice. These phone calls are informally known as “informational interviews.” In most cases, assuming they know your family and you well, they will say yes to the phone call. However, if they don’t respond, send them a polite follow up email a week after you sent your first email, and if they don’t respond again, then don’t sweat it, move on, and speak to your other contacts on the phone.
Along with reaching out to people your family and you already know, you can also send “cold emails” to people you do not know who work in your desired fields. Before “cold emailing” random people, you should first reach out to graduates of your high school, graduates of your elite college, graduates of your elite college’s grad schools, and graduates of other colleges who were in your fraternity or sorority at other schools. Your elite college will have an alumni database that you can access; talk to advisors at your school’s career services office about acquiring this access. LinkedIn is also another great resource for tracking down alumni. Once you’ve exhausted these sources, you can “cold email” or “cold call” anyone in your desired field regardless of the school they attended. Since you may not have any connections to people you “cold email” or “cold call,” you may end up having a very low success rate in acquiring new contacts for your professional network using this method (eg. one out of ten “cold calls” may result in an actual connection). Nevertheless, with sufficient volume, “cold emailing” and “cold calling” can be very effective techniques for networking and are well worth the investment under the right circumstances.
Once you’re on the phone for an informational interview, start by asking your contact about their career (or instead about working in city X if they work in a different career field than your desired field but live in the city that you're targeting). After they’ve spoken for a bit about their career (or city), tell them that you’re interested in careers (and/or internships) in their field (or careers in field Y in their city) and ask them for advice. If they work in one of these fields, you may want to only say that you’re interested in careers in their field and avoid mentioning the other fields altogether, even if you’re also interested in those fields as well. Additionally, they will likely have lots of advice to give you. If they don’t work in one of your desired fields, they probably won’t have as much advice to give you.
Either way, ask them if they know anyone that works in your desired field(s) and your desired work location(s) and ask them if they would be willing to introduce you to these people. If they say yes (which they hopefully will), they’ll put you in touch with one or more of their contacts (usually via email) in your desired field(s) and location(s). Set up phone calls with their contacts, talk to them on the phone, ask for more contacts (especially if they don’t offer you an internship or a job), and repeat this process until you land a position. Send thank you emails to each person after every phone call and connect with each person you speak with on the phone on LinkedIn.
After each semester or every few months, send an email update to all of your contacts detailing anything new, RELEVANT, and/or interesting in your academic, extracurricular, and professional life (eg. classes you took, clubs you recently joined, internships you landed, awards you won, trips you took, ect.). When you send this email update to your contacts, do NOT add all of your contacts to one email message and send out one email message to everyone. Instead, send separate email messages to each contact and copy and paste the same text into each separate email message. While you’re networking, you may realize that some (or many) contacts you’ve made are not worth investing much time in, so you may choose to stop sending them email updates on a regular basis.
That’s networking in a nutshell. If you follow these steps starting freshman year, you’ll be way ahead of the pack compared to your peers.
  1. Get an internship during your freshman summer.
A surprisingly large number of students at elite colleges waste their freshman summers doing nothing because they don’t invest time in procuring a freshman summer internship. While finding a freshman summer internship can be difficult given that many large companies and organizations don’t typically hire freshmen for the summer, landing a freshman summer internship is certainly not impossible, especially since you attend an elite college, which will make hiring managers more likely to give you an offer.
Most freshman summer internships are unpaid. This means that you need to either (a) find an internship near your parents’ or relatives’ homes where you’ll get free housing and meals or (b) procure funding from family or other sources to cover the cost of living while you do your freshman summer internship in another city, such as NYC, DC, or SF. Elite colleges usually give grants to students doing unpaid public service internships, so you may be able to apply for funding from your school. Ask your career services office about funding options available at your school.
If you can't acquire funding for a freshman summer internship and/or you would prefer to live with family and relatives during your freshman summer, then you’ll probably have to network with alumni of your elite college that live in your local area, family friends, your high school teachers, and anyone else you know that lives in your local area to land a freshman summer internship. Use the networking strategies listed above, and you should be able to find something.
There are several local internship options near your home that are feasible to get for each career field. For politics, you can volunteer for a congressional campaign or work in the district office of your local Congressman. For law, you can reach out to local law firms and see if they’ll let you do some legal work during the summer. For tech, you can work for startups in your local area or remotely. For finance, you can contact wealth managers in your area and ask if they’ll let you intern during the summer. For medicine, you can contact doctor’s offices or hospitals and ask to shadow a doctor or nurse for a few weeks. Suffice to say there are lots of internship options for freshman summer, and it’s up to you to seize them.
  1. Find mentors.
While you're at your elite college, make sure you forge relationships with mentors. These mentors can include upperclassmen, professors, and alumni. Mentors will be able to advise you on all aspects of your life and will enable you to maximize your academic, personal, social, and professional success. By using the networking tips described above, you will develop strong relationships with a set of mentors who will be pivotal for your success
  1. Have fun!
Lastly, and perhaps most importantly, have fun! College is an amazing time wherever you end up going, so make sure as a student that you periodically put the books away and go to a frat party, floor party, and/or other social event(s). Never again in your life will it be deemed “okay” and “normal” to stay up into the wee hours of the morning drinking (or not drinking) and partying on a weekly basis. Take advantage of this time and have fun! Don’t get in trouble or break the law, but do make sure you do some memorable things so that you’ll have stories to tell and reminisce about when you hang out with your college buddies after you graduate.
Wherever you go to school, you’re going to have an awesome time. I sincerely mean that. Best of luck next year and as they say in theater, break a leg!
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2020.04.12 22:46 CuteBananaMuffin The Anunnaki and The Abyss

The Anunnaki and The Abyss
by E. Vegh
2005
from TheLivingRoom Website

PREFACE
Study the past if you would define the future. -Confucius
The compilation and fruition of this book was a long time in the making. As theories tend to evolve slowly, so also did I arrive at the concepts advanced in this book, one discovery at a time. Being a long time student and armchair scholar of the biblical prophecies, I furthered my understanding of ancient times and texts, by expanding my studies into the realms of several ancient cultures.
I researched areas such as the ancient Sumerians, the biblical Nephilim, pseudopigraphia, and the various works of art, cuneiforms and ancient texts.
My studies ranged over topics as outlandish as "stargates" and as mainstream as the compiled works of accepted theologians, eschatologists, scholars and linguists of various caliber. Suddenly, a new thread appeared before me, a thread the years had all but covered in the forgetfulness of time.
After further study and much thought, I began to see the need to share these discoveries with the reading public.
It is my hope that you will find the information contained herein, to be both revealing and useful to your own historical, Sumerian and biblical studies.
If nothing else, it will provide an interesting foray into the histories of the ancient peoples and their related texts.
~E. Vegh
August 2005

Abyss = Abzu
Many scholars have translated the word "Abyss" to mean, a deep body of water. Likewise, assyriologists assume the Sumerian "Abzu" is a mythological deep body of fresh water, an underground water source.
However, considering the ways in which both the Abyss and Abzu are described in ancient texts and depicted on cylinder seals, it's highly unlikely that any such translation is completely revealing or entirely accurate. In this book, I will describe how and why such translations are incorrect and provide a feasible set of alternative viewpoints for your consideration.
According to biblical texts, there's a hidden door to the "Abyss" and "Bottomless Pit" in the vicinity of the Euphrates river, a star gate of sorts. It has been there, buried under the ruins of the ancient Mesopotamian city of Eridu, for thousands of years. [1]
It's my contention, that this Abyss mentioned in the bible, is also referred to in Sumerian texts as the "Abzu," and is associated with a Sumerian God known as "Enki-Ea."
The Abzu or Engur, is further described as a doorway from which Enki-Ea arrived on the Earth and over which he built the Temple of E.ABZU at Eridu, to facilitate its usage. Yes, you heard me right: usage. But to what end would he be using it? Certainly not for fresh water when the Euphrates was close at hand and abundantly fresh. If this "Abzu" was also the doorway from his "land" to the Earth, in what fashion would he be using it then? How did it function and just where exactly is his "land?" [2]
Stranger still, in the biblical texts, the Abyss (Abzu) is "opened" with a key and locked with a key. If this Abyss were a literal body of water, how would one go about unlocking and locking it with a key? Is it all a metaphor for some unseen spiritual dimension with a spiritual, not literal, key?
I think not and in this book, I will attempt to prove just such a point.
Anunnaki = Angels
In addition to sharing my discoveries regarding the Abyss/Abzu, I will also be providing alternative explanations as to the identity of the ancient Sumerian Gods, known as the Anunnaki.
There is much confusion amongst scholars, researchers and laymen, as regards the identity of the Anunnaki. Some refer to them as extra-terrestrials, which technically, is correct. However, there is another layer to that definition which many either don't see, refuse to see or simply ignore. Some refer to them as demons, which is incorrect, a point I will discuss briefly, later in the book.
Some refer to them as the biblical Nephilim, also an incorrect analogy. Some refer to them as the "Gods" of the ancients, and although technically correct, I intend to prove this was a case of mistaken identity on the part of the ancient peoples, rather than the reality of the situation. And some believe the ancients were worshipping the stars, and had simply deified them in their art and literature.
Although there is sufficient evidence to suggest the ancients did indeed worship the stars and planets, there exists a logical explanation for why they did so that does not require calling them delusional, or simply dealing in metaphors for the stars in every text and art-form. Generally-speaking, the Sumerian texts were historical not fictional metaphors.
As a natural outcropping of the discovery of the true identity of the Anunnaki, the Abyss and Abzu become clearly identified and vice-a-versa. In other words, the Anunnaki and the Abyss go hand in hand and further define one another. This is an essential point and one that requires careful consideration if you wish to correctly understand the entirety of the events of ancient Sumer, Akkad, Babylon and biblical prophecy.
(Disclaimer: I, by no means, understand the entirety of prophecy or history. However, the subject of the Anunnaki and the Abyss/Abzu, is one I have found highly significant. It hasn't been given sufficient research by the mainstream theological, archaeological and historical communities, in my opinion).
So, without further ado, my short eBook on the topic of "The Anunnaki and the Abyss!" I hope you find it engaging and revealing.
Footnotes
1 Revelation 9 2 For related, translated Sumerian texts, see: Sumerian Reading Room.
Back to Contents

Chapter 1 Who were the Anunnaki?
There are a terrible lot of lies going around the world, and the worst of it is half of them are true. -Sir Winston Churchill
Few people agree on the identity of the Sumerian Anunnaki. However, one viewpoint seems to be generally accepted by many people of many disciplines: The Anunnaki were worshipped as Gods by the Sumerian people. To understand why such an event occurred, one must also understand the timeframe.
Ancient Sumer was the first civilization on the planet (to date).
It was ushered in by the Anunnaki, who taught the people music, the sciences, astronomy, languages (both spoken and written), mathematics, herbology, manipulation of the environment, hybridization of crops, genetic manipulation of livestock, religion, sexual promiscuity, war, mining for resources, jewelry-making, tailoring, blacksmithing, architecture, art, poetry, human sacrifice, and the whole gamut of "civilized behaviors."
In fact, these events are not only outlined in the writings of the ancient Sumerians, but also in the Bible, the pseudopigraphia of the Hebrews [1] and the ancient texts of the Hindu.
In the midst of all this, was Enki-Ea, the Anunnaki Lord of the Abzu. [2] As a result, this book will deal primarily with Enki or Enki-Ea, as his role in the events in which the Abzu plays a prominent part, is paramount in understanding the whys and wherefores of the Abyss, the Bottomless Pit, the behavior of the ancient peoples, and the prophetical biblical texts (both Old and New Testaments).
Enki was not only the Lord of the Abzu and creator of the Temple of the E.ABZU at Eridu, he was purported to be the creator of the human race in the ancient Sumerian texts. This is, of course, in direct contradiction with biblical texts in which Elohim (God of the Gods) [3] is the creator of humanity. How this contradiction occurred and what it means to us today, is the premise of "The Anunnaki and the Abyss."
Therefore, let us investigate this Enki character further so we can ascertain once and for all, who the Anunnaki were and how they impact us.
In addition to creating "humans" (and I use that word loosely), Enki purportedly created "monsters," such as various animal-human hybrids, in his Temple of E.ABZU at Eridu. In short, he was playing with the genetics of the various species of life on this planet. So rather than saying he created humans, it would be more correct to say he created another form of human from pre-existing humans.
He also designed a race of supermen, known in the biblical texts as the "Nephilim." These supermen were entrusted with positions of authority, and became rulers, leaders and kings. One such example was "Gilgamesh", King of Uruk, who considered himself two-thirds God as a result of his lineage from the Anunnaki and Enki.[4]
Upon first encountering "humans" on the planet, Enki determined they were in need of an upgrade, according to the Sumerian texts. They were uncivilized, and ran about sans clothing, drinking from the rivers like the animals and living pretty much free of the trappings of civilization. So he set about creating his supermen and their first "civilization" by melding Anunnaki DNA with human DNA and installing his creatures in the seats of power as rulers of the masses.
And so began the Sumerian civilization.
Does any of this sound familiar? It should.
Enki is undoubtedly the source of the biblical "Serpent in the Garden of Eden." The unwitting humans upon which he preyed, became his first test subjects, who would be "upgraded" for kingship, enlightened, as it were, "knowing good and evil."
These "became mighty men which were of old, men of renown." (Genesis 6:4)
Enki's primary motivation was the business of creating Nephilim, to rule over the people and exact penance and slavery from them, once they were "civilized." According to the biblical texts, the creators of the Nephilim were the "sons of God,", who came down from heaven and created mighty men. In other words, they were angelic beings who created human hybrids either through genetic manipulation or via sexual intercourse with the pre-existing population.
So where does that leave Enki and the Anunnaki?
If you haven't guessed it by now, Enki and the Anunnaki were the Fallen Angels of the biblical texts. Who else would be the ruler of the "Bottomless Pit" but the Lord of the Abzu!
Unfortunately, once humans were civilized and the hybrid population began to increase, chaos ensued. The animal and human genomes were so polluted, sickness and disease were rampant. The environment became polluted also and the entire destiny of humankind was in the balance. Among the many horrors of this timeframe, were a nuclear war [5] and the onset of rampant cannibalism, during which the Nephilim began to eat the human population as a food source.
These events lead up to the Flood of Mesopotamian tradition, spoken of in the Bible and in Sumerian, Akkadian and Babylonian texts. It's no small wonder that the Fallen Angels/Anunnaki responsible for such a fiasco, were forced to go back through the door of the Abzu by the biblical God, after which the thing was "locked" and buried under several feet of silt and rock, so that they could not return here that is, until the events of Revelation 9 occur.
Yes, the Anunnaki responsible for the deaths of literally millions, who were instrumental in the pollution of all life on the planet, who assisted in necessitating the Flood, who were involved in our expulsion from Eden, and who had preyed on our species for millennia, are going to return via the "stargate" many of them employed to get here in the first place.
'How so?' you might ask. Answer: They were not the only Anunnaki in the universe, and time has a way of providing the means to anyone who has the determination to meet a goal.
In fact, after the Flood, more Anunnaki came to re-infiltrate the planet and the genome. Apparently, we were easy pickins' and not too terribly discerning. Undaunted by the punishment inflicted on their brethren, other Anunnaki returned to continue their program of systematic annihilation of the human species as an eternal life-form.
And therein lies the clincher and the mystery, the point repeatedly hidden from our race by principalities, powers, rulers of darkness in high places (otherwise known as The Powers That Be) or TPTB): You see, human beings were and are eternal, capable of being resurrected to eternal life in their own bodies but the human-hybrid Nephilim were not as their bodies were not created by God. As a result, their eternal spirits were left to roam eternity without a physical form, without the ability to touch, feel, eat, smell, or enjoy eternity.
These became the demons, who, in their efforts to regain what they had lost, attempted (and still do) to possess the physical bodies of living beings.
(Note: This also clearly separates them from the Anunnaki. They are the human-hybrid offspring of the Anunnaki and not the Anunnaki, themselves. Although the two have been confused in historical texts, this was most likely the result of the combining of both under one umbrella, for ease of reference: like father, like son. Like Fallen Angel, like Demon). For example, Gilgamesh bemoans his hopeless situation as a Nephilim, in the Epic of Gilgamesh. Because he was not fully angelic, nor fully human, he would be destined to roam the earth as a demonic spirit upon the death of his physical body. He attempts to learn the secrets of eternal life and immortality from the biblical Noah, but returns empty-handed. His fate had already been sealed by the Anunnaki who had created him.
The actions of his life, as King, were certainly evidence enough that he was not a righteous man, nor was he acting in the best interests of his people.
He spent a good portion of his time creating more Nephilim of his own, by sexually accosting the brides of his kingdom on the eve of their weddings, thereby assuring that every first born child in his kingdom, would be Nephilim. Thusly, why the tradition of the "First Born," became so important to the royal classes for literally, millennia.
Ever wonder why the "Angel of Death," killed only the "first born" of Egypt, commemorated in the Hebrew Passover?
Well, now you know. If positions of authority and power were to be handed out to the population, one had to be sure they were "worthy" of it. Apparently, worthiness was measured by the amount of "angelic" blood one had flowing in their veins, which ironically, guaranteed them a chance of the good life while in their physical bodies with little to no chance of a good life in the hereafter. Not a very attractive proposition.
The rationale behind the bloodline inheritances went deeper, however, than simply blood. These were "mighty" people. They were highly skilled in some fashion, being either incredibly talented, incredibly strong, or incredibly intelligent.
They had supernatural gifts, as well, such as extra-sensory perception, the ability to seemingly defy various aspects of the physical universe and presumably perform "magical" feats of derring-do. In short, they were so far ahead of the common man, they were easily able to enslave them in the name of their Anunnaki progenitors.
I have only to remind you of the Great Pyramid of Cheops (Khufu), to illustrate just how advanced the Nephilim were.
These hybrids understood physics, complex mathematical computations, large scale resource management, architecture, advanced astronomy and geometry, before most of the world had even figured out how to count to 20 on their toes and fingers or read, for that matter.
All of this leads us to the next topic: if the Anunnaki/Fallen Angels came to earth from some other place, what is that place and how did they get here?
Footnotes
1 See The Book of Enoch 2 Enki's Journey to Nibiru : The Oriental Institute, University of Oxford; Electronic Corpus of Sumerian Literature 3 See King James Sacred Name Bible 4 See The Epic of Gilgamesh 5 See the "Vimanas" of the Mahabarata


Chapter 2 Hell, UFOs and Angelic Beings
When a distinguished but elderly scientist states that something is possible, he is almost certainly right. When he states that something is impossible, he is very probably wrong. - Arthur C. Clarke Clarke's first law


Artistic rendering of an actual statue ca.4000 BC, found in Ur.[1]

Typically referred to as Hell, the domain of the Fallen Angels is an enigmatic place.
Biblically and historically, Hell is said to be many things, including: a firey place of torment, a burial heap outside the city limits, the grave, the Bottomless Pit, the Abyss, and the Underworld.
Several concepts have been melded together to form that one infamous and enigmatic residence of the Fallen Angels.
When taken together, they describe various aspects of "Hell," which I think is the best possible answer to the question of what Hell actually is: rather than a single four word description, we can combine its many aspects for a clearer picture.
For example, if Hell were literally the grave, how could it also be a place of torment or the Bottomless Pit? If it were literally a burial heap outside the city limits, how could it also be the underworld or a fiery place of torment?
Now combine the concepts: It's obviously connected to the "underground", thusly the grave, Bottomless Pit and Abyss references, which amazingly, also confirms it as the Sumerian Abzu, the Greek Hades and the Roman Pluto (not to be confused with the planet Pluto)!
In other words, these concepts validate and as a whole, describe, at least one of the major domains of the Fallen Angels mentioned repeatedly, in nearly every culture in history. I say "one of the major domains," because, like it or not, the Fallen Angels have also set up housekeeping on Earth and around Earth space, as well.
In fact, it is my contention that the Fallen Angels are more than partially responsible for most UFO activity and "alien" abductions encountered by humans down through the annals of history. Let's take, for example, the Anunnaki "Igigi" of Akkadian and Babylonian fame.
The cuneiform word "gi" [2] is the symbol for sexual intercourse, to deflower sexually. "I.gi" means in Akkadian, inu "eye", and is combined with the symbol for deflowering sexually. "Igigi" can then be translated to mean, the "Watchers", the "Eyes in the Sky" who deflower sexually (et.al, the Anunnaki/Fallen Angels).
Yet, according to the Sumerian texts, the Igigi were the Greater Gods and didn't come to the earth, but remained up in the sky, circumnavigating the globe. So how is it they "Deflowered" anyone while being uninvolved in the activities of the humans on the planet?
Abduction, my friends, abduction. And they are still at it today.
It says in the Bible that the Apocalypse would feature aspects quite similar to the days of Noah leading up to the flood, such as a huge population of Nephilim created by Anunnaki involvement with our species, abuse of the environment, genetic manipulation of life on the planet, poisoning of our food sources, and so on, mostly as a result of their Nephilim progeny carrying out the Anunnaki agenda. Here we go again.
How ironic that even in the face of historical precedence, we are right back where we started from.
Who is really in control of this planet? I'll give you three guesses and the first two don't count. Sadly, many from the UFO community do not recognize the danger of the Anunnaki.
After all, they say,
"Didn't the extra-terrestrials save us from launching nuclear bombs at one another?" "Aren't they more advanced on the evolutionary scale?"
This, they believe, is evidence that the aliens/Anunnaki/Fallen Angels, have our best interests at heart.
However, many don't take into consideration the past of the Anunnaki and that their final agenda has not yet been met: that is, the annihilation of humans as an eternal LIFEform. As a human, if you die, your body can still be resurrected to eternal life. As a result, any actions they may or may not take, whether seemingly good or bad, will inevitably lead to the latter for as many people as possible.
That's the plan, and it is clearly outlined in scripture with hundreds of other ancient texts from various cultures to verify the historical precedence. Don't believe me? Think I'm just a crazy Bible thumper? Read the Hindu Mahabarata. [3]
Let me reiterate: THEY ARE NOT OUR FRIENDS.
Anyway, back to the topic of that enigmatic domain of the Fallen Angels. Some believe the Anunnaki came from Nibiru and believe Nibiru is another planet, elsewhere in the solar system.
However, Nibiru is spoken of in the Sumerian texts as the holy city of Enlil, containing his temple the E-Kur, which sits on a mountain surrounded by cedar trees with a gate up to the heavens:
"In the city, the holy settlement of Enlil, in Nibiru, the beloved shrine of father Great Mountain, he has made the dais of abundance, the E-kur, the shining temple [...]" "Enlil , when you marked out the holy settlements, you also built Nibiru, your own city." -Quotations from "Enlil in the E.KUR" [4]
According to Sumerian texts, Enki travels to Nibiru, Enlil's city, where he meets with the other Anunnaki, including Enlil and they proceed to get totally drunk.
No gates, no fanfare, no heaven-earth bond, he just travels to Nibiru. This Nibiru, my friends, is/was not another planet. It was right here on good ole' Terra (Earth) at Enlil's city.
However, the Abzu does lead to some other-wordly place and that place is most likely not the literal center of the Earth or "underground." The only thing that is or was underground was the "door" to the stargate itself, called the Abzu which leads to Erkalla or Kurnugi (among other distant places in the universe), the land of no return (for humans, anyway), the land of darkness, pain, sorrow, and so forth, very "Abyss-ian" if you ask me!
Conversely, Enlil, an Anunnaki and Enki's father or brother, depending on which story you read, appears to have had a star gate of his own at E.KUR in Nippur, called the DUR.ANKI, the heaven-earth bond, which lead to the Courtyard of "An" in "heaven", who was the premiere Anunnaki. Both of these "star gates" have seven gates between Earth and their final "mentioned" destinations. [5]
The salient point to remember here is that they were all sons of Jehovah Elohim (et.al, other creations) and not literally Elohim, themselves (although I have seen them described as elohim - diminutive). As yet, I have no reason to believe that "An" was Elohim either, but I have plenty of reason to believe Enlil and Enki were Angels created by Elohim, in a different creation cycle before our time.
The Gods and the greater Gods, were most likely the fallen angels and the fallen archangels in many cases, and would correspond with the Sumerian Anuna and the Anunnaki/Igigi. There's historical precedence for this viewpoint in the ancient Hebrew texts, the Bible and various other ancient texts.
I believe these texts indicate that the fallen angelic beings were "stuck" as it were, in the physical universe and have to rely on technology in order to traverse the reaches of space, having been stripped of the ability to cross the dimensions into God's presence (They were "cast out of Heaven"). However, the holy angels and archangels have an entirely different set of abilities and options, from what I can ascertain.
They are primarily messengers, and stay out of human affairs with the exception of when under direct commandment from God, which typically involves protecting humans from the fallen angels. In fact, many times in the Old Testament and New, you can read about the angels protecting humans from various problems almost always directly associated with the fallen angels in some aspect.
The good news is, if you're an abductee or don't wish to become one, there is someone who can protect you from abduction by these extra-terrestrial, fallen angels. His name is Jesus.
So there you have it. The Fallen Angels, in most cases, are extra-terrestrials, responsible for many (if not all) legitimate accounts of abductions and sightings. They have employed technology to mimic the works of God down through the millennia.
By manipulating the physical realm with dramatic outcomes, they have convinced many that the spiritual does not exist and that all instances of the miraculous are/were simply clever aliens using technology or explainable by the sciences, as they have done for thousands of years.
They've implanted their hybrids in the highest offices of our lands and in the seats of power of every major institution and corporation, for as long as there have been seats of power to sit upon. If you've ever wondered why you couldn't get ahead in life, no matter how hard you tried, you have only to give thanks for your humanity (and do give thanks for it).
The invisible ceiling we've all suspected existed in the higher echelons of power, does indeed exist. We may no longer have to wear our place in the caste system boldly painted our foreheads today, but that doesn't mean we aren't still categorized for success or failure from the moment of birth. Any variation or deviation from the poverty and servitude normally assigned the lowly human race by the fallen angels and their prodigy, is truly a miracle of God.
What does all this have to do with the Abzu and the Abyss? That is the subject of the next chapter.
Footnotes
1 Lost Treasures from Iraq - Oriental Institute, University of Chicago 2 The Basis of the Babylonian Igigi 3 The Mahabarata - Internet Sacred Text Archive 4 Enlil in the E.KUR - Earth History 5 Nergal and Ereshkigal - Earth History

Chapter 3 Star Gate
The most exciting phrase to hear in science, the one that heralds new discoveries, is not 'Eureka!' (I found it!) but 'That's funny ...' - Isaac Asimov (1920 - 1992)
The stargates of Enki and Enlil were discussed briefly, in the last chapter. Prior to that, I skimmed the topics related to Hell, the Abyss, the Abzu and the Bottomless Pit.
Now, to tie all the ends together into a cohesive unit.
Revelation 9, in the New Testament of the Bible, explains in detail the re-opening of Enki's "Abzu":
And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth: and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit. And he opened the bottomless pit; and there arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air were darkened by reason of the smoke of the pit.
A "star fall(ing) from heaven," is a biblical idiom for describing a fallen angel descending to earth, which I believe is further identified as a fallen angel descending to earth in a spacecraft, an UFO.
Upon reaching the Earth, he opens the Abyss with a key.
Obviously, he's not opening the ocean with a key, so this "Abyss" reference is the same as the reference to the "Abzu": et. al, it's underground and it's an entrance or exit, as the case may be. In fact, it's underground in the same vicinity (i.e., near the Euphrates) as Enki's Abzu!
Coincidence? I think not. Furthermore, it's also called the "Bottomless Pit." As far as I am aware, there's nothing "Bottomless", about the depths of the Earth.
But there is something bottomless about a stargate, a wormhole or any variation thereof.
And there came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth: and unto them was given power, as the scorpions of the earth have power.
There's two very interesting coincidences in the above verse:
Wasn't the first King of Egypt called the "Scorpion King"? Aren't there abduction stories that describe the abductors as appearing like bugs of various sorts - praying mantis aliens, grey bug-eyed aliens, and so on?
Let's look into their descriptions further:
And the shapes of the locusts were like unto horses prepared unto battle; and on their heads were as it were crowns like gold, and their faces were as the faces of men. And they had hair as the hair of women, and their teeth were as the teeth of lions. And they had breastplates, as it were breastplates of iron; and the sound of their wings was as the sound of chariots of many horses running to battle. And they had tails like unto scorpions, and there were stings in their tails: and their power was to hurt men five months.
Sounds like an invasion of UFOs with extra-terrestrial pilots, to me. And they don't appear to be employing any stealth technology - no need to I guess, since by then, their agenda is fully set and loaded for deployment.
The magnitude of sound may enhance the sheer fear factor such an event would naturally inspire in the average human being. In fact, they are so noisy, the sound of their "wings" is like the sound of many horses running to battle, obviously causing the ground to shake with their powerful presence.
Not a pleasant scenario. What an entrance!
And they had a king over them, which is the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon.
This one had me puzzled for a long time. How did Enki, our resident Lord of the Abzu, become Apollyon and Abaddon?
I researched the etymology of both names and found an interesting coincidence. In a branch of the Euphrates river that separates Iraq from Iran, is a little island called "Abadan." Abadan is an ancient Arabic family name that means "Watcher of the Water." Yes, my friends, there was the etymological origins of our Enki-Ea, in living color.
From Answers.com:
Abadan is named for Abbad, a member of the Abbasid dynasty who founded the city in the 8th century. Some etymological experts however, believe the name to have originated from the Persian word "ab" (water) and the root "pa" (guard, watch).
And here's where things get really interesting:
What if they've already discovered the burial site of Enki's star gate? Maybe the stargate was Saddam's "weapon of mass destruction"?
After all, we're being visited by alien spacecraft on a regular basis, these days. And Saddam was certainly a busy little archaeologist prior to the invasion. He was even rebuilding Babylon, that proverbial "Gateway of the Gods."
There are even TV shows and a movie on the subject of star gates (see Stargate: SG-1, Stargate: Atlantis and Stargate, the movie) with, oddly enough, a very similar premise!
All coincidence? Are you kidding me?
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2020.04.04 21:24 Cucubert 4-4-20 - Comprehensive List of Free Services, Emergency Assistance, Ways we can Help, and Things to Do While We All Quarantine

IMPORTANT INFORMATION
FOR HEALTHCARE WORKERS
EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE
EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE FOR WORKERS
EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE ORGANIZATIONS AND FUNDS
WHAT WE CAN DO TO HELP
SERVICES
K-12 STUDENTS
COLLEGE STUDENTS
BOOKS, AUDIOBOOKS, GRAPHIC NOVELS, MAGAZINES
STREAMING FOR MOVIES, DOCUMENTARIES, AND TELEVISION
VIDEO GAMES
OTHER MEDIA ENTERTAINMENT
HOBBIES, LEARNING, TIME PASSERS, AND EXERCISE
VIRTUAL TOURS AND LIVE WEBCAMS
STUFF FOR KIDDOS
GOOD NEWS AND HEROES
LIST OF OTHER HELPFUL LISTS, DISCOUNTS (AND THINGS I COULDN'T CATEGORIZE)
03/28 Update: I am beginning a collaborative project with u/rbevans to create a searchable database of resources since it seems inevitable that I will eventually hit the character limit here on Reddit. I will continue updating daily on Reddit in the meantime, though.
04/01 Update: Sorry for my absence, I took a much needed break from the non-stop Corona-virus news, but am refreshed and ready to get back to work now!
04/02 Update: Added more resources for volunteer opportunities, entertainment, and students today
04/04 Update: Added links to assist the elderly and for those in AA as well as additional free courses
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2020.04.04 18:34 clemaneuverers "Sasquatch", "Wildmen", "Matlox", "Yeti" "Almas"; call them what you will; there are credible historical and contemporary reports and evidence, from around the world, that show mysterious Humanoid/Ape-like Mammals exist in the wilderness of the Earth's continents.

What follows is a massively abridged (by me) version of Chapter 10 of "Forbidden Archeology" by Michael Cremo and Richard L. Thompson. Reading it recently I found it enthralling, but I wished some of the things described were better illustrated (if at all!). So I spent some time searching online for the appropriate images. I then abridged and formatted the chapter for posting to Reddit, and inserted the pictures that I found into the text. I've included, at an appropriate part of the text, a link to more recent info relating to DNA discoveries ...
Living Ape-Men?
There are signs that humans may have coexisted with more apelike hominids throughout the Pleistocene. We suggest that humans and ape-man-like creatures continue to coexist. Over the past hundred or so years, researchers have accumulated substantial evidence that creatures resembling Neanderthals, Homo erectus, and the Australopithecines even now roam wilderness areas of the world.
Hard Evidence Is Hard To Find
In 1775, Carl Linnaeus, the founder of the modern system of biological classification, listed three existing human species: Homo sapiens, Homo troglodytes (cave man), and Homo ferus (wild man). Although Linnaeus knew the latter two species only from travellers’ reports and secondary sources, he included them in his Systema Naturae.
Professional scientists have (1) observed wild-men in natural surroundings, (2) observed live captured specimens, (3) observed dead specimens, and (4) collected physical evidence for wild-men, including hundreds of footprints. They have also interviewed non-scientist informants and investigated the vast amount of wildman lore contained in ancient literatures and traditions.
Many will say that all the wildman evidence mentioned above exists simply in reports, and that reports alone, even those given by scientists, are not sufficient to establish the existence of wild-men. However, in palaeoanthropology, as in many areas of science, evidence exists primarily in the form of reports.
During World War II almost the whole collection of Homo Erectus fossils was lost during the Japanese occupation of China. The Homo Erectus fossils now exist only in the form of old written reports, photographs, and casts. And no one doubts that the originals did in fact exist.
But what about reports by scientists who claim they saw and examined dead specimens of wildmen, the corpses of which were not preserved? Most scientists will grant no credibility at all to such reports. In one case the reports are believed, and in the other they are not. Why? We propose that reports about evidence conforming to the standard view of human evolution generally receive greater credibility than reports about nonconforming evidence. Thus deeply held beliefs, rather than purely objective standards, may become the determining factor in the acceptance and rejection of reports about controversial evidence.
Cryptozoology
...refers to the scientific investigation of species whose existence has been reported but not fully documented.
Is it really possible that there could be an unknown species of hominid on this planet? There remain vast unpopulated and little-travelled areas. In particular, the North-Western United States still has large regions of densely forested, mountainous terrain which, although mapped from the air, are rarely penetrated by humans on the ground. A surprising number of new species of animals are still being found each year—about 5,000 according to a conservative estimate. As might be suspected, the great majority of these, some 4,000, are insects.
Yet, The largest of the bears, the Kodiak bear, was unknown to science until 1899. The largest rhinoceros, Cotton’s white rhino, was discovered in 1900. The mountain gorilla, the largest member of the ape family, turned up in 1901. The largest lizard, the Komodo dragon, was first captured in 1912. In 1975, the largest known peccary, or wild hog, Catagonus wagneri, was discovered in Paraguay. This animal was previously known only by Pleistocene fossils. In 1976, a large and entirely new species of shark, 4.5 meters (almost 15 feet) long and weighing over 700 kilograms (over 1,500 pounds), was caught by a U.S. Navy ship in the ocean waters off Hawaii.
European Wild-men
Many art objects of the Greeks, Romans, Carthaginians, and Etruscans bear images of semi-human creatures resembling wild-men. During the Middle Ages, wild-men continued to be depicted in European art and architecture. A page from Queen Mary’s Psalter, composed in the fourteenth century, shows a very realistically depicted hairy wildman being attacked by a pack of dogs.
Wild-men were thought to live in caves and forests. They subsisted on berries and roots. They were not considered ordinary humans. They were said to be members of the animal kingdom.
Northwestern North America
In 1792, the Spanish botanist-naturalist José Mariano Moziño, in describing the Indians of Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island, Canada, stated:
“I do not know what to say about Matlox, inhabitant of the mountainous district, of whom all have an unbelievable terror. They imagine his body as very monstrous, all covered with stiff black bristles; a head similar to a human one, but with much greater, sharper and stronger fangs than those of the bear; extremely long arms; and toes and fingers armed with long curved claws. His shouts alone (they say) force those who hear them to the ground, and any unfortunate body he slaps is broken into a thousand pieces.”
Of the Spokane Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Elkanah Walker, a missionary who lived among them for 9 years, wrote in 1840:
“They believe in the existence of a race of giants which inhabit a certain mountain, off to the west of us. They inhabit its top. They hunt and do all their work in the night. They are men stealers. They come to people’s lodges in the night, when the people are asleep and take them and put them under their skins and take them to their place of abode without their even awakening. They say their track is about a foot and a half long. They frequently come in the night and steal their salmon from their nets and eat them raw. If the people are awake they always know when they are coming very near by the smell which is most intolerable”
Indians from the Columbia River region of the northwestern United States produced rock carvings that resembled the heads of apes. Anthropologist Grover Krantz showed photographs of the heads to a number of scientists and noted:
“Zoologists who did not know their source unanimously declared them to be representative of nonhuman, higher primates; those who knew the source insisted they must be something else!” Preconceptions seem to determine what scientists are prepared to see, and one thing most scientists are definitely not prepared to see is apelike creatures in the American Northwest.
On July 4, 1884, the Colonist, a newspaper published in Victoria, British Columbia, carried a story titled: “What is it? A strange creature captured above Yale. A British Columbian Gorilla.” Ned Austin, a railway engineer, spotted a human-like creature ahead of him on the tracks, blew the whistle, and stopped. The creature darted up the side of a hill, with several railway employees in pursuit. After capturing the animal, described as “half man and half beast”, the railway employees turned him over to Mr. George Tilbury. The Colonist reported: “‘Jacko,’ as the creature has been called by his capturers, is something of the gorilla type, standing about four feet seven inches in height and weighing 127 pounds. He has long, black, strong hair and resembles a human being with one exception, his entire body, excepting his hands (or paws) and feet is covered with glossy hair about one inch long. His forearm is much longer than a man’s forearm, and he possesses extraordinary strength”
Myra Shackley noted:
“The newspaper account of Jacko was subsequently confirmed by an old man, August Castle, who was a child in the town at the time. The fate of the captive is not known, although some said that he (accompanied by Mr. Tilbury) was shipped east by rail in a cage on the way to be exhibited in a sideshow, but died in transit”
Furthermore, there were additional reports of creatures like Jacko from the same region. Zoologist Ivan Sanderson said about Jacko in one of his collections of wildman evidence:
“one of his species had been reported from the same area by Mr. Alexander Caulfield Anderson, a well-known explorer and an executive of the Hudson’s Bay Company, who was doing a ‘survey’ of the newly opened territory and seeking a feasible trade route through it for his company. He reported just such hairy humanoids as having hurled rocks down upon him and his surveying party from more than one slope. That was in 1864.”
In 1967, in the Bluff Creek region of Northern California, Roger Patterson and Bob Gimlin managed to shoot a short color film of a female Sasquatch.
They also made casts of her footprints. These prints, which were 14 inches long, were 5.5 inches wide at the ball and 4 inches wide at the heel
Several opinions have been expressed about the film. While some authorities have said it is an outright fake, others have said they think it provides good evidence in favor of the reality of the Sasquatch. Mixed opinions have also been put forward. A man could have sufficient height and suitable proportions to mimic the longitudinal dimensions of the Sasquatch. The shoulder breadth however would be difficult to achieve without giving an unnatural appearance to the arm swing and shoulder contours”
Anthropologist Myra Shackley of the University of Leicester observed that the majority view seems to be
“that the film could be a hoax, but if so an incredibly clever one.”
Dr. Jeff Meldrum compares the surface anatomy between the costumes in Beneath the Planet of the Apes and the Patterson-Gimlin film. He says there’s no comparison.
More Footprints
As far as Sasquatch footprints are concerned, independent witnesses have examined and reported hundreds of sets, and of these more than 100 have been preserved in photographs and casts.
Footprint comparison by Professor Meldrum
Napier stated:
“if any of them is real then as scientists we have a lot to explain. Among other things we shall have to re-write the story of human evolution. Critics, however, assert that all these footprints have been faked. Undoubtedly, some footprints have been faked, a fact the staunchest supporters of the Sasquatch will readily admit. But could every single one of them be a hoax?
Grover S. Krantz, an anthropologist at Washington State University, was initially skeptical of Sasquatch reports.In reconstructing the skeletal structure of the foot from a print, he noted that the ankle was positioned more forward than in a human foot. Taking into consideration the reported height and weight of an adult Sasquatch, Krantz, using his knowledge of physical anthropology, calculated just how far forward the ankle would have to be set. Returning to the prints, he found that the position of the ankle exactly matched his theoretical calculations.
“That’s when I decided the thing is real,”
said Krantz.
“There is no way a faker could have known how far forward to set that ankle. It took me a couple of months to work it out with the casts in hand, so you have to figure how much smarter a faker would’ve had to be”
Typically the prints are 14 to 18 inches long and 5 to 9 inches wide, giving a surface roughly 3 to 4 times larger than that of an average human foot. Hence the popular name Bigfoot. To make a Sasquatch footprint as deep as an average human footprint would require a weight 3 to 4 times greater than that of an average-sized man. In all cases, however, whether the prints are in snow, mud, dirt, or wet sand, the Sasquatch prints are much deeper than those made by a man walking right next to them in the same material. Thus a weight of more than 3 or 4 times that of a man is required to make the Sasquatch prints. A 200-pound man would have to be carrying at least 500 pounds to make a good print. There are reports of series of prints extending from three-quarters of a mile up to several miles, in deserted regions far away from the nearest roads. The stride length of a Sasquatch varies from 4 to 6 feet (the stride length of an average man is about 3 feet). Try walking a mile with at least 500 pounds on your back and taking strides 5 feet long.
In several cases, the Sasquatch footprints indicated the maker strode over large logs, which a human of normal size could not have gotten over without disturbing the fresh snow clearly visible on their tops. In some cases, the distance between the toes of the footprints varied from one print to the next in a single series of prints. This means that besides all the other problems facing a hoaxer, he would have had to incorporate moving parts into his artificial feet. Furthermore, in order to insure that some of his fake prints would be found, any hoaxer would probably have had to make more trails of footprints than were actually discovered—and that means a lot of work.
In conclusion, critics have failed to explain all the footprints as the work of hoaxers. It would seem, therefore, that the footprints argue strongly for the reality of the Sasquatch, as demonstrated by the following case.
On June 10, 1982, Paul Freeman, a U.S. Forest Service patrolman tracking elk in the Walla Walla district of Washington State, observed a hairy biped around 8 feet tall, standing about 60 yards from him. After 30 seconds, the large animal walked away. Krantz studied casts of the creature’s footprints and found dermal ridges, sweat pores, and other features in the proper places for large primate feet. Detailed skin impressions on the side walls of the prints indicated the presence of a flexible sole pad. Krantz solicited opinions from other scholars and fingerprint experts. Tatyana Gladkova, a specialist in dermatoglyphics from the USSR Institute of Anthropology, said:
“I see dermal ridges of the arch type distally directed. I see sweat pores. If it’s a fake, it’s a brilliant fake, on the level of counterfeiting, and by someone well versed in dermatoglyphics”
Douglas M. Monsoor, a master police fingerprint examiner from Lakewood, Colorado, stated:
“I see the presence of ridge structure in these casts, which, in my examination, appears consistent with that type of ridge structure you would find in a human. Under magnification, they evidence all the minute characteristics similar to human dermal ridges. They appear to be casts of impressions of a primate foot—of a creature different from any of which I am aware”
The majority of the Sasquatch reports come from the northwestern United States and British Columbia. However, there are also numerous reports from the eastern parts of the United States and Canada. For example there were, as of 1977, 11 reports from New York, more than 24 reports from Pennsylvania, 19 reports from Ohio, 18 from Michigan, 9 from Tennessee, more than 36 from New Jersey, 19 from Arkansas, 23 from Illinois, 30 from Texas, and 104 from Florida, 74 reports from Montana, 32 from Idaho, 176 from Oregon, 281 from Washington, 225 from British Columbia, and 343 from California.
“One is forced to conclude that a man-like life-form of gigantic proportions is living at the present time in the wild areas of the northwestern United States and British Columbia.”
Central And South America
In Buckskin Joe, Edward Jonathan Hoyt reported an encounter he had in 1898 in Honduras. A large, apelike creature, about 5 feet tall, crawled over the end of his bunk. Hoyt killed the animal, which resembled a human
From southern Mexico’s tropical forests come accounts of beings called the Sisimite. Wendell Skousen, a geologist, said the people of Cubulco in Baja Verapaz reported: “There live in the mountains very big, wild men, completely clothed in short, thick, brown, hairy fur, with no necks, small eyes, long arms and huge hands. They leave footprints twice the length of a man’s.” “it looked like a bear, but it wasn’t from the description that they gave—no conspicuous ears, no ‘snout’” Similar creatures are reported in Guatemala, where, it has been said, they kidnap women and children
From the eastern slopes of the Andes in Ecuador come reports of the Shiru, a small fur-covered hominidlike creature, about 4 to 5 feet tall (Sanderson 1961, p. 166). In Brazil, people tell of the large apelike Mapinguary, which leaves giant humanlike footprints and is said to kill cattle.
Yeti: Wildmen of The Himalayas
Myra Shackley observed that Yeti are found in Nepalese and Tibetan religious paintings depicting hierarchies of living beings.
“Here, bears, apes, and langurs are depicted separate from the wildman, suggesting there is no confusion (at least in the minds of the artists) between these forms.”
After reviewing the available reports, Ivan Sanderson compiled the following composite description of the Yeti:
“Somewhat larger than man-sized and much more sturdy, with short legs and long arms; clothed in long rather shaggy fur or hair, same length all over and not differentiated. Naked face and other parts jet black; bull-neck and small conical head with heavy browridges; fanged canine teeth; can drop hands to ground and stand on knuckles like gorilla. Heel very wide and foot almost square and very large, second toe longer and larger than first, and both these separated and semi-opposed to the remaining three which are very small and webbed.”
In November of 1951, Eric Shipton, while reconnoitering the approaches to Mt. Everest, found footprints on the Menlung glacier, near the border between Tibet and Nepal, at an elevation of 18,000 feet. Shipton followed the trail for a mile. Already well known as a mountaineer, Shipton could not easily be accused of publicity-seeking. A close-up photograph of one of the prints has proved convincing to many. In 1956, Professor E. S. Williams photographed some prints on the Biafo glacier in the Karakoram mountains. Napier, who thought it likely that they were the superimposed prints of the front and rear paws of a bear, said
“It is impossible to state categorically that Williams’s prints are those of a bear and not of a Yeti, but in the spirit of Bishop of Ockham it seems more reasonable to explain a phenomenon in terms of the known rather than the unknown.”
Of course, in avoiding the relatively straightforward explanation that a peculiar set of tracks in snow was made by an unknown animal, one is forced to come up with all kinds of speculative hypotheses about the superimposition of prints of various animals and humans, or the transformation of such prints by melting, in a manner not clearly understood. And this would also appear to be a violation of a key aspect of Ockham’s razor—namely, that the simplest of competing theories is preferable to the more complex.
Some Buddhist monasteries claim to have physical remains of the Yeti. One category of such relics is Yeti scalps, but the ones studied by Western scientists are thought to have been made from the skins of known animals. In 1960, Sir Edmund Hillary mounted an expedition to collect and evaluate evidence for the Yeti and sent a Yeti scalp from the Khumjung monastery to the West for testing. The results indicated that the scalp had been manufactured from the skin of the serow, a goatlike Himalayan antelope. But some disagreed with this analysis. Shackley said they
“pointed out that hairs from the scalp look distinctly monkey-like, and that it contains parasitic mites of a species different from that recovered from the serow.”
In 1978, Lord Hunt, who headed the British Mt. Everest expedition of 1953, saw Yeti tracks and heard the high-pitched cry the Yeti is said to make. Lord Hunt, described by Shackley as “a vigorous champion of the Yeti,” had come upon similar tracks in 1953. In both 1953 and 1978, the tracks were found at altitudes of 15,000 to 20,000 feet, too high for the either the black or red bears of the Himalayas.
It is interesting to note that science has recognized the existence of many fossil species on the strength of their footprints alone. The hypotheses and reconstructions of cryptozoology (regarding animals actually alive) are no more daring, questionable, fantastic, or illegitimate than those upon which paleontology has based its reconstructions of the fauna of past ages.
The Almas of Central Asia
There is another wildman, the Almas, which seems smaller and more human. A drawing of an Almas is found in a nineteenth-century Mongol compendium of medicines derived from various plants and animals. The text next to the picture reads:
“The wildman lives in the mountains, his origins close to that of the bear, his body resembles that of man, and he has enormous strength. His meat may be eaten to treat mental diseases and his gall cures jaundice” Reports of the Almas are concentrated in an area extending from Mongolia in the north, south through the Pamirs, and then westward into the Caucasus region. Similar reports come from Siberia and the far northeast parts of the Russian republic.
Early in the fifteenth century, Hans Schiltenberger wrote in his book of the Tien Shan mountain range in Mongolia: “The inhabitants say that beyond the mountains is the beginning of a wasteland which lies at the edge of the earth. No one can survive there because the desert is populated by so many snakes and tigers. In the mountains themselves live wild people, who have nothing in common with other human beings. A pelt covers the entire body of these creatures. Only the hands and face are free of hair. They run around in the hills like animals and eat foliage and grass and whatever else they can find. The lord of the territory made Egidi a present of a couple of forest people, a man and a woman. They had been caught in the wilderness, together with three untamed horses the size of asses and all sorts of other animals which are not found in German lands and which I cannot therefore put a name to”
Myra Shackley found Schiltenberger’s account especially credible for two reasons:
“First, Schiltenberger reports that he saw the creatures with his own eyes. Secondly, he refers to Przewalski horses, which were only rediscovered by Nicholai Przewalski in 1881. Przewalski himself saw ‘wildmen’ in Mongolia in 1871.”
Shackley noted:
“The book contains thousands of illustrations of various classes of animals, but not one single mythological animal such as are known from similar medieval European books. All the creatures are living and observable today.”
The Pamir mountains, lying in a remote region where the borders of Tadzhikistan, China, Kashmir, and Afghanistan meet, have been the scene of many Almas sightings. In 1925, Mikhail Stephanovitch Topilski, a major-general in the Soviet army, led his unit in an assault on an anti-Soviet guerilla force hiding in a cave in the Pamirs. One of the surviving guerillas said that while in the cave he and his comrades were attacked by several apelike creatures. The body of one such creature was found.
“It was covered with hair all over. But I knew there were no apes in the Pamirs. Also, the body itself looked very much like that of a man. We tried pulling the hair, to see if it was just a hide used for disguise, but found that it was the creature’s own natural hair. We turned the body over several times on its back and its front, and measured it. Our doctor made a long and thorough inspection of the body, and it was clear that it was not a human being. The body belonged to a male creature 165–170 cm [about 5½ feet] tall, elderly or even old, judging by the greyish colour of the hair in several places. The chest was covered with brownish hair and the belly with greyish hair. The hair was longer but sparser on the chest and close-cropped and thick on the belly. In general the hair was very thick, without any underfur. There was least hair on the buttocks, from which fact our doctor deduced that the creature sat like a human being. There was most hair on the hips. The knees were completely bare of hair and had callous growths on them. The whole foot including the sole was quite hairless and was covered by hard brown skin. The hair got thinner near the hand, and the palms had none at all but only callous skin.”
“The colour of the face was dark, and the creature had neither beard nor moustache. The temples were bald and the back of the head was covered by thick, matted hair. The dead creature lay with its eyes open and its teeth bared. The eyes were dark and the teeth were large and even and shaped like human teeth. The forehead was slanting and the eyebrows were very powerful. The protruding jawbones made the face resemble the Mongol type of face. The nose was flat, with a deeply sunk bridge. The ears were hairless and looked a little more pointed than a human being’s with a longer lobe. The lower jaw was very massive. The creature had a very powerful chest and well developed muscles. The arms were of normal length, the hands were slightly wider and the feet much wider and shorter than man’s.”
According to testimony from villagers of Tkhina, on the Mokvi River, a female Almas was captured there during the nineteenth century, in the forests of Mt. Zaadan. For three years, she was kept imprisoned, but then became domesticated and was allowed to live in a house. She was called Zana. (artists impression) “Her skin was a greyish-black colour, covered with reddish hair, longer on her head than elsewhere. She was capable of inarticulate cries but never developed a language. She had a large face with big cheek bones, muzzle-like prognathous jaw and large eyebrows, big white teeth and a ‘fierce expression.’” Eventually Zana, through sexual relations with a villager, had children. Some of Zana’s grandchildren were seen by Boris Porshnev in 1964. “The grandchildren, Chalikoua and Taia, had darkish skin of rather negroid appearance, with very prominent chewing muscles and extra strong jaws.”
Was 19th Century apewoman a yeti? 6ft 6in Russian serf who could outrun a horse was 'not human', according to DNA tests
In 1899, K. A. Satunin, a Russian zoologist, spotted a female Biaban-guli in the Talysh hills of the southern Caucasus. He stated that the creature had “fully human movements” (Shackley 1983, p. 109). The fact that Satunin was a well-known zoologist makes his report particularly significant.
Wildmen of China
“Chinese historical documents, and many city and town annals, contain abundant records of Wildman, which are given various names,”
states Zhou Guoxing of the Beijing Museum of Natural History. Two thousand years ago, the poet-statesman Qu Yuan made many references to Shangui (mountain ogres) in his verses. Li Yanshow, a historian who lived during the T’Ang Dynasty (a.d. 618–907), stated that the forests of Hubei province sheltered a band of wildmen. Wildmen also appeared in the writings of Li Shizhen, a pharmacologist of the Ming Dynasty (a.d. 1368–1644). In the fifty-first volume of his massive work on medical ingredients, he described several species of humanoid creatures, including one named Fei-fei.
Li wrote:
“‘Feifei,’ which are called ‘manbear,’ are also found in the mountainous areas in west Shu and Chu division, where people skin them and eat their palms. The You mountain of Sha county, Fujian province, sees the same ones, standing about one zhang (equal to 3.1 meters [ just over 10 feet]) in height and smiling to the people they come across, and are called ‘shandaren’ (men as big as mountains), ‘wildmen,’ or ‘shanxiao’”.
In the eighteenth century, the Chinese poet Yuan Mei made reference to strange creatures inhabiting the wild regions of Shanxi province, calling them “monkeylike, yet not monkeylike”
According to Zhou:
“Even today, in the area of Fang County, Hubei Province, there are still legends about ‘maoren’ (hairy men) or ‘wildmen.’ A local chronicle, about 200 years old, says that ‘the Fang mountain lying 40 li (2 li equals one kilometer [.62 mile]) south to the county town is precipitous and full of holes, where live many maoren, about one zhang high and hair-coated. They often come down to eat human beings and chickens and dogs, and seize those who fight with them.’A lantern on which there is an ornament of a ‘maoren’ figure was unearthed in this area during an archaeological excavation. It has been dated at 2,000 years”
In 1940, Wang Zelin, a graduate of the biology department of Northwestern University in Chicago, was able to directly see a wildman shortly after it was shot to death by hunters. Wang was driving from Baoji, in Shanxi Province, to Tianshui, in Gansu Province, when he heard gunfire ahead of him. He got out of the car to satisfy his curiosity and saw a corpse. It was a female creature, six and a half feet tall and covered with a coat of thick greyish-red hair about one and a quarter inches long. The hair on its face was shorter. The cheek bones were prominent, and the lips jutted out. The hair on the head was about one foot long. According to Wang, the creature looked like a reconstruction of the Chinese Homo erectus.
Ten years later, another scientist, Fun Jinquan, a geologist, saw some living wildmen. Zhou Guoxing stated: “With the help of local guides, he watched, at a safe distance, two local Wildmen in the mountain forest near Baoji County, Shanxi Province, in the spring of 1950. They were mother and son, the smaller one being 1.6 meters in height. Both looked human”
In 1961, workers building a road through the heavily forested Xishuang Banna region of Yunnan province in southernmost China reported killing a humanlike female primate. The creature was 1.2–1.3 meters (about 4 feet) tall and covered with hair. It walked upright, and according to the eyewitness reports, its hands, ears, and breasts were like those of a female human. The Chinese Academy of Sciences sent a team to investigate, but they were not able to obtain any physical evidence. Some suggested that the workers had come upon a gibbon. But Zhou Guoxing stated:
“The present author recently visited a newsman who took part in that investigation. He stated that the animal which had been killed was not a gibbon, but an unknown animal of human shape. It is worth noting that, over the past 2 years or so, some people in the western border areas of Yunnan Province say that the above-mentioned kind of Wildman still move about, and that another one has since been killed”
Consider the case of Pang Gensheng, a local commune leader, who was confronted in the forest by a wildman. Pang, who stood face to face with the creature, said;
“He was about seven feet tall, with shoulders wider than a man’s, a sloping forehead, deep-set eyes and a bulbous nose with slightly upturned nostrils. He had sunken cheeks, ears like a man’s but bigger, and round eyes, also bigger than a man’s. His jaw jutted out and he had protruding lips. His front teeth were as broad as a horse’s. His eyes were black. His hair was dark brown, more than a foot long and hung loosely over his shoulders. His whole face, except for the nose and ears, was covered with short hairs. His arms hung down to below his knees. He had big hands with fingers about six inches long and thumbs only slightly separated from the fingers. He didn’t have a tail and the hair on his body was short. He had thick thighs, shorter than the lower part of his leg. He walked upright with his legs apart. His feet were each about 12 inches long and half that broad—broader in front and narrow behind, with splayed toes”
Wildmen of Malaysia And Indonesia
In 1969, John McKinnon, who journeyed to Borneo to observe orangutans, came across some humanlike footprints. McKinnon asked his Malay boatman what made them.
“Without a moment’s hesitation he replied ‘Batutut,’” wrote McKinnon, “but when I asked him to describe the beast he said it was not an animal but a type of ghost. Batutut, he told me, is about four feet tall, walks upright like a man and has a long black mane. Like other spirits of the forest the creature is very shy of light and fire”
Later, in Malaya, McKinnon saw some casts of footprints even bigger than those he had seen in Borneo, but he recognized them as definitely having been made by the same kind of creature. The Malayans called it Orangpendek (short fellow). McKinnon stated:
“Again natives spoke of a creature with long hair, who walks upright like a man. Drawings and even photographs of similar footprints found in Sumatra are attributed to the Sedapa or Umang, a small, shy, long-haired, bipedal being living deep in the forest” (Green 1978, pp. 134 –135). According to Ivan Sanderson, these footprints differ from those of the anthropoid apes inhabiting the Indonesian forests (the gibbon, siamang, and orangutan). They are also distinct from those of the sun bear (Sanderson 1961, p. 219).
In a journal article about wildmen published in 1918, Westenek recorded a report from a Mr. Oostingh, who lived in Sumatra. Once while proceeding through the forest, he came upon a man sitting on a log and facing away from him. Oostingh stated:
“I saw that he had short hair, cut short, I thought; and I suddenly realised that his neck was oddly leathery and extremely filthy. ‘That chap’s got a very dirty and wrinkled neck!’ I said to myself. His body was as large as a medium-sized native’s and he had thick square shoulders, not sloping at all. . . . he seemed to be quite as tall as I (about 5 feet 9 inches). Then I saw that it was not a man.” “It was not an orang-utan,” declared Oostingh. “I had seen one of these large apes a short time before.”
What was the creature if not an orangutan? Oostingh could not say for sure:
“It was more like a monstrously large siamang, but a siamang has long hair, and there was no doubt that it had short hair”
Mainstream Science and Wildman Reports
Despite all the evidence we have presented, most recognized authorities in anthropology and zoology decline to discuss the existence of wildmen. If they mention wildmen at all, they rarely present the really strong evidence for their existence, focusing instead on the reports least likely to challenge their disbelief.
Hand and foot bones of wildmen, and even a head, have been collected. Competent persons report having examined bodies of wildmen. And there are also a number of accounts of capture. That none of this physical evidence has made its way into museums and other scientific institutions may be taken as a failure of the process for gathering and preserving evidence. The operation of what we could call a knowledge filter tends to keep evidence tinged with disrepute outside official channels.
However, some scientists with solid reputations, such as Krantz, Napier, Shackley, Porshnev, and others, have found in the available evidence enough reason to conclude that wildmen do in fact exist, or, at least, that the question of their existence is worthy of serious study.
Myra Shackley wrote to our researcher Steve Bernath on December 4, 1984:
“As you know, this whole question is highly topical, and there has been an awful lot of correspondence and publication flying around on the scene. Opinions vary, but I guess that the commonest would be that there is indeed sufficient evidence to suggest at least the possibility of the existence of various unclassified manlike creatures, but that in the present state of our knowledge it is impossible to comment on their significance in any more detail. The position is further complicated by misquotes, hoaxing, and lunatic fringe activities, but a surprising number of hardcore anthropologists seem to be of the opinion that the matter is very worthwhile investigating.”
submitted by clemaneuverers to conspiracy [link] [comments]


2020.04.02 22:55 Cucubert 4-2-20 - Comprehensive List of Free Services, Emergency Assistance, Ways we can Help, and Things to Do While We All Quarantine

IMPORTANT INFORMATION
FOR HEALTHCARE WORKERS
EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE
EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE FOR WORKERS
EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE ORGANIZATIONS AND FUNDS
WHAT WE CAN DO TO HELP
SERVICES
K-12 STUDENTS
COLLEGE STUDENTS
BOOKS, AUDIOBOOKS, GRAPHIC NOVELS, MAGAZINES
STREAMING FOR MOVIES, DOCUMENTARIES, AND TELEVISION
VIDEO GAMES
OTHER MEDIA ENTERTAINMENT
HOBBIES, LEARNING, TIME PASSERS, AND EXERCISE
VIRTUAL TOURS AND LIVE WEBCAMS
STUFF FOR KIDDOS
GOOD NEWS AND HEROES
LIST OF OTHER HELPFUL LISTS, DISCOUNTS (AND THINGS I COULDN'T CATEGORIZE)
3/24 Update: Added some more general links as well as a new category: Good News and Heroes. My post has reached a length where it doesn't want to let me add anything else. I will begin a new list tomorrow with a link to this one at the top.
3/25 Update: Added a few more resources for healthcare workers, and a few other items. I got a hold of quite a few additional entertainment sources so that will be the focus of tomorrow's update.
03/26 Update: Added quite a few user suggested items I hadn't gotten around to, and a special thanks to everyone who has contributed to this list.
03/27 Update: Added more important information. Please browse this section carefully as this is the most information about the CoVid-19 situation that you should know. I also added some additional links in most of the other categories.
03/28 Update: I am beginning a collaborative project with u/rbevans to create a searchable database of resources since it seems inevitable that I will eventually hit the character limit here on Reddit. I will continue updating daily on Reddit in the meantime, though.
04/01 Update: Sorry for my absence, I took a much needed break from the non-stop Corona-virus news, but am refreshed and ready to get back to work now!
04/02 Update: Added more resources for volunteer opportunities, entertainment, and students today
submitted by Cucubert to CoronavirusUS [link] [comments]


2020.04.01 16:46 Cucubert 4-1-20 - Comprehensive List of Free Services, Emergency Assistance, Ways we can Help, and Things to Do While We All Quarantine

IMPORTANT INFORMATION
FOR HEALTHCARE WORKERS
EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE
EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE FOR WORKERS
EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE ORGANIZATIONS AND FUNDS
WHAT WE CAN DO TO HELP
SERVICES
K-12 STUDENTS
COLLEGE STUDENTS
BOOKS, AUDIOBOOKS, GRAPHIC NOVELS, MAGAZINES
STREAMING FOR MOVIES, DOCUMENTARIES, AND TELEVISION
VIDEO GAMES
OTHER MEDIA ENTERTAINMENT
HOBBIES, LEARNING, TIME PASSERS, AND EXERCISE
VIRTUAL TOURS AND LIVE WEBCAMS
STUFF FOR KIDDOS
GOOD NEWS AND HEROES
LIST OF OTHER HELPFUL LISTS, DISCOUNTS (AND THINGS I COULDN'T CATEGORIZE)
3/24 Update: Added some more general links as well as a new category: Good News and Heroes. My post has reached a length where it doesn't want to let me add anything else. I will begin a new list tomorrow with a link to this one at the top.
3/25 Update: Added a few more resources for healthcare workers, and a few other items. I got a hold of quite a few additional entertainment sources so that will be the focus of tomorrow's update.
03/26 Update: Added quite a few user suggested items I hadn't gotten around to, and a special thanks to everyone who has contributed to this list.
03/27 Update: Added more important information. Please browse this section carefully as this is the most information about the CoVid-19 situation that you should know. I also added some additional links in most of the other categories.
03/28 Update: I am beginning a collaborative project with u/rbevans to create a searchable database of resources since it seems inevitable that I will eventually hit the character limit here on Reddit. I will continue updating daily on Reddit in the meantime, though.
04/01 Update: Sorry for my absence, I took a much needed break from the non-stop Corona-virus news, but am refreshed and ready to get back to work now!
submitted by Cucubert to CoronavirusUS [link] [comments]


2020.03.29 20:49 hurricaneoflies BirackObama v. TheCloudCappedStar, in re: AB.285—The Green New Deal: 2019 Energy Act

In re: AB.285
Your Honor-
BirackObama, investor in Consolidated Edison of New York (ConEd), the largest investor-owned energy company in the nation. ConEd is a publicly-regulated electric, gas and steam utility, with service and rates set by the Atlantic Commonwealth Public Service Commission.
Plaintiff is also a bondholder of the New York Power Authority. The New York Power Authority, created by the Long Island Power Act, is distributed by ConEd, PSEG, and LIPA/National Grid. PSEG maintains $32 billion and LIPA $3.5 billion in operating assets. Its main transmission cable alone in Long Island is valued at $500 million with $1.5 billion pledged to rebuild its infrastructure.

Questions Presented

Whether the Act’s express requirement that all funding is appropriated per project, no more and no less, adheres to the Eminent Domain Law and Commonwealth prohibition on seizing labor if “fair market value” eliminates debts, including those purchases by union and company pensions?
Does Atlantic sovereign immunity apply to the Public Service Commission administering directly the utility, which legislatively in the Public Service Chapter is a gubernatorial partnership of a dozen officers merely to regulate rates, services, and operations?
Whether case law pertaining to pre-incorporation analysis has been foreclosed in Atlantic in light of recent findings, and if so, whether similar analysis of retributive fines is no longer applicable to the seizing of the Wall Street Bull, the taxation of universities with unfavorable names,the first energy seizure proved by the Supreme Court, the tobacco industry? Is it more akin to seizing a hot dog vendor’s truck and livelihood under a disproportionate New York City retributive fine as deemed by the Court before this term?

Court Preference

New York Public Service Law § 21 requires this Court to hear and decide actions commenced by either the Assembly-Executive independent Public Service Commission referred to in the Green New Deal Act, or by any person regarding any question in the Public Service Law chapter, “irrespective of position on the calendar” outside election law claims. “The same preference shall be granted upon application in any action or proceeding in which the commission may be allowed to intervene.”

Claims

The Green New Deal Act Fails to Adhere to Most of the Commonwealth’s Public Services Chapter, Earning the Commonwealth an Unpaid Profit from Existing Power Corporate Debt and Equity

Whenever any public utility company or municipality, whose rates are subject to the jurisdiction of the commission, shall receive any refund of amounts charged and collected from it by any source, the commission shall have power after a hearing… to determine whether or not such refund should be passed on, in whole or in part, to the consumers of such public utility company or municipality and to order such public utility company or municipality to pass such refunds on to its consumers, in the manner and to the extent determined just and reasonable by the commission.
The new Commonwealth’s utility faces no damages by complying with both the Green New Deal Act and the Public Service Laws and it should do so. The Commonwealth Assembly has decided on its own accord to cancel all outstanding debt payments to the millions of investors, worker pension funds, insurers, governments, municipalities and institutions that purchased NYPA bonds. It did so by seizing the regulated energy sector while failing to appropriate monies either sufficient for the takeover or appropriating any money for debt service. In 2017, this amounted to $769 million in liabilities on the NYPA balance sheet, more than energy generation revenue.
Canceled debt to the public is a profit. The Assembly did not appropriate funds to do so and then limited its own power in the Act to steer additional funds to bond payments from select workers’ payments and renewable energy. The sole appropriated money is set for shares, known as equity, and very little for seized property (which under some definitions can also be indebted bonds). The free money must be paid back under the law to consumers and lenders.
No gas corporation or electric corporation shall directly or indirectly acquire the stock or bonds of any other corporation incorporated for, or engaged in, the same or a similar business, in this state or any other state, or proposing to operate or operating under a franchise from the same or any other municipality...unless authorized so to do by the commission.
The new green statewide utility, a public utility the same as ConEd that preceded it, violated the Public Service Laws directly when it monopolized all equity and debt from other corporations underneath the new entity. The Green New Deal utility is in the same or substantially similar business as the nuclear, wind, electric, steam, gas and transmission utilities of the Commonwealth before it.
Only the Commission, not the Assembly, can authorize acquiring or selling stocks and bonds otherwise. Even if it could, the post-Green New Deal Commission for the first time directly operates a new corporation. Now, the Assembly requires the Commission to both independently regulate acquisitions and sales of power companies, while appropriating an insufficient budget to ethically carry out both its and the Governor’s mandatory duty of a self-monopolized utility.
ACE is hereby established as a state-owned utility under the authority of the Atlantic Public Service Commission.
The Governor or the Secretary of Finance and Infrastructure shall be given the powers over the ACE to:
Reappropriate money to different projects within the ACE, but not allocate more or less money overall;
Mandate the closing or opening of any given > part of the Electric Grid; Reorganize the ACE
The intent of the overwhelming breadth of the existing legal chapter against that of a single poorly written law is clear. For example:
No consent, permission or approval otherwise required under this section shall be necessary for the sale of the franchise, works, system, stocks or bonds by a gas or electric corporation to a duly constituted authority of the state.
The Court must defer to the overwhelming intent of the legislature: the Commonwealth must pay, in an elective sale decided by the existing utilities, before acquiring assets. If there is a legitimate public interest in the acquisition, then the duly constituted authority must still pay bond service, outstanding bond purchases based on new investor views of risk, and stockholder dividends for the debt and equity of the acquired entity. Since the new utility wasn’t funded to do so, by choice and also by inadequate capitalization, the Green Deal Act utility has no possible defense and must be repaired outside the Court.

Under Eminent Domain Proceedings Law, Fair Value Was Not Paid

Any person or persons jointly or severally, aggrieved by the condemnor's determination and findings made pursuant to section two hundred four of this article, may seek judicial review thereof by the appellate division of the Supreme Court EDPL § 207
Notwithstanding any inconsistent provisions of law, general or special, the provisions of this law shall be controlling and on and after the effective date of this law, any interest in real property subject to acquisition shall be acquired pursuant to the provisions of this law.(including realty bonds).
An “appropriate judgement” in the Eminent Domain Proceedings Law is the fair market value plus interest for the seized property. The Green New Deal Act appropriates $100 billion for “shares,” known as equity in a corporation, and $50 billion for all other value of the real property taken by the Commonwealth. Assumption of debt is never mentioned although it is crucial to energy profitability.
The Assembly’s seizure, somehow without any positive executive action, takes place in two parts:
The [Commonwealth Assembly establishes the AEC and the] Atlantic Electric Grid will be seized under imminent domain for the public use of the environment and energy, and consolidated under ACE’s authority.
Part two:
ACE must, upon the expropriation of any property… [using its new independent Commission-managed authority] Provide fair financial compensation to the owner of the expropriated property.
The ACE will never be profitable. Most current profitability by New York utilities is based on debt through bond sales. It is a favorite piggy bank for Albany budget makers. The restrictions on the Green New Deal Commission’s income are onerous: those consumers who cannot afford current payments receive free supply; workers are paid over $30 an hour (although their pension plans have lost their bonds); formerly private industry must establish and fund new unions with the new utility; the Commission must subsidize green energy and then pay consumers for using it; it can charge no more than operating costs for gas, electric and steam provisions; and 90 percent of renewable infrastructure must be built in less than a decade.
To make their stinginess clear to the Commission, the Assembly states no more or less funds can be used for any specified purpose unless already in one section of the Act itself:
All previous descriptions of allocation of money is enforced in this section. Any other section containing a promise of allocation of money is purely descriptive and not put into force until listed in this section.
The Governor or the Secretary of Finance and Infrastructure shall be given the powers over the ACE to… Reappropriate money to different projects within the ACE, but not allocate more or less money overall (although limited to the “projects” of renewable energy, it would appear to violate prior controlling AC Constitution and Court precedent)

Eighth Amendment Jurisprudence n the Commonwealth is Only Recently Extremely Askew and Should Be Corrected

The Eighth Amendment "must draw its meaning from the evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society." Trop v. Dulles, 356 U.S. 86, 101 (1958). While Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153 (1976), found the death penalty consistent with the Eighth Amendment, times have changed and the living, evolving nature of the Eighth Amendment means that the Court should no longer view Gregg as binding precedent. — Judge HurricaneofLies, CACLU, in Chesapeake
The City too narrowly views the scope of the Excessive Fines Clause. Although Eighth Amendment claims often arise in the criminal context, civil fines may also fall within reach of the amendment (see Korangy v United States FDA, 498 F3d 272, 277 [4th Cir 2007], cert denied 552 US 1143 [2008]; Towers v City of Chicago, 173 F3d 619, 623-624 [7th Cir 1999], cert denied 528 US 874 [1999]). This Court recognized as much in Matter of Street Vendor Project v City of New York (43 AD3d 345 [1st Dept 2007], lv denied 10 NY3d 709 [2008]). In that case, a group representing street vendors challenged as unconstitutional a schedule of civil fines adopted by the ECB. Although we found that the record was insufficient to permit review of the group's constitutional claim, we concluded that individual street vendors could raise such a challenge in future lawsuits where the facts of each separate case could be developed (id. at 346). Matter of Prince v City of New York 2013 NY Slip Op 03623 Decided on May 21, 2013
Because the fine here, at least in part, serves a deterrent purpose, it cannot be considered solely remedial and thus is subject to Eighth Amendment analysis (see State of New York v Town of Wallkill, 170 AD2d 8, 11 [3d Dept 1991] [civil penalty contained in Environmental Conservation Law is punitive in nature, serving purposes of both retribution and deterrence, in addition to restitution]; United States v Mackby, 261 F3d 821, 830 [9th Cir 2001] [civil sanctions under the False Claims Act are subject to the Excessive Fines Clause because the sanctions represent a payment to the government, at least in part, as punishment]). Id.
The Court was wrong in MyHouseIsOnFire_ v. TheCloudCappedStar, in re: The Green New Deal: 2019 Energy Act and it should not bind itself a an extreme precedent unfamiliar to the State of New York and likely one day will apply on a narrower gauge to civil forfeiture nationally.
The Commonwealth Judiciary has repeatedly in its short history seen the Northeast Assembly aim targeted seizures at industrial actors it does not like: defense, intelligence, energy (twice), art, Wall Street, Walmart, academia. Not only is legislation not the appropriate means to effect eminent domain, which along with regulatory taking is an executive act, it cannot use the threat of eminent domain to fine the unfortunate and pay dividends to others. It is a state fine, a wrong and capricious one by the Assembly that the Court should discourage by applying precedent in all possible ways, even if imperfectly argued by other petitioners. .
Therefore, the Court should strike the entirety of the Green New Deal Act and apply prior precedent since the 1990s to reverse the extreme holding that the Eighth Amendment in New York is completely inapplicable to analyses of the Assembly’s excessive fines.
submitted by hurricaneoflies to ModelNortheastCourts [link] [comments]


2020.03.29 08:00 Cucubert 3-29-20 - Comprehensive List of Free Services, Emergency Assistance, Ways we can Help, and Things to Do While We All Quarantine

IMPORTANT INFORMATION
FOR HEALTHCARE WORKERS
EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE
EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE FOR WORKERS
EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE ORGANIZATIONS AND FUNDS
WHAT WE CAN DO TO HELP
SERVICES
K-12 STUDENTS
COLLEGE STUDENTS
BOOKS, AUDIOBOOKS, GRAPHIC NOVELS, MAGAZINES
STREAMING FOR MOVIES, DOCUMENTARIES, AND TELEVISION
VIDEO GAMES
OTHER MEDIA ENTERTAINMENT
HOBBIES, LEARNING, TIME PASSERS, AND EXERCISE
VIRTUAL TOURS AND LIVE WEBCAMS
STUFF FOR KIDDOS
GOOD NEWS AND HEROES
LIST OF OTHER HELPFUL LISTS, DISCOUNTS (AND THINGS I COULDN'T CATEGORIZE)
3/24 Update: Added some more general links as well as a new category: Good News and Heroes. My post has reached a length where it doesn't want to let me add anything else. I will begin a new list tomorrow with a link to this one at the top.
3/25 Update: Added a few more resources for healthcare workers, and a few other items. I got a hold of quite a few additional entertainment sources so that will be the focus of tomorrow's update.
03/26 Update: Added quite a few user suggested items I hadn't gotten around to, and a special thanks to everyone who has contributed to this list.
03/27 Update: Added more important information. Please browse this section carefully as this is the most information about the CoVid-19 situation that you should know. I also added some additional links in most of the other categories.
03/28 Update: I am beginning a collaborative project with u/rbevans to create a searchable database of resources since it seems inevitable that I will eventually hit the character limit here on Reddit. I will continue updating daily on Reddit in the meantime, though.
submitted by Cucubert to CoronavirusUS [link] [comments]